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Assessing crop challenges after a tough 2015

As the difficult 2015 season progresses toward harvest, Ohio’s growers may continue to face more challenges before the year is over. While there is not much that can be done at this point for the 2015 crop, scouting fields will help growers to decide which fields need to be harvested first as well as what plans should be made for next year in terms of crop rotation, tillage, varietal selection, etc.

In many areas of the state, diseases have developed in both corn and soybean fields. Weather played a big part in the appearance and development of disease. For soybeans, sclerotinia white mold (SWM), sudden death syndrome (SDS), and frogeye leaf spot (FE) have developed late in the season. Rainy weather from May through July created an environment conducive to SWM development below the canopy. SDS has appeared in areas of fields where soil compaction exists and soil was saturated for long periods of time this spring.

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Soybean aphid update for 2015

As predicted, we have begun to see soybean aphids move into soybean fields over the past few weeks.  Coincidentally, this is the third year in a row that we have seen aphids move in relatively late in the growing season.  Hopefully, most of our soybean are starting to mature and reaching the R6 stage, but there are some that still have a way to go due to delayed spring maturity.

By now we all should be familiar with the soybean aphid threshold of a rising population of 250 aphids per plant.  But keep in mind that this number is the action threshold, it is not the economic injury level (EIL) at which soybean aphid causes yield loss.  Yield loss occurs when aphids reach 500-600 aphids per plant. If you soybeans are at R4 and below, then continue to use the 250 threshold.  However, the threshold does not apply to beans at R6 and later. 

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Stress during grain fill

Rains during June and July set new records in some areas of the Cornbelt this year, causing weak root development, nitrogen loss and even affected pollination in some fields with poor ear-tip fills. Leaf diseases like Northern Corn Leaf Blight and Gray Leaf Spot were rampant in some areas causing additional stress on the corn crop. Some of the effects of this stressful environment on grain-fill are indicated below:

• After pollination, we need 50-60 days depending on the relative maturity of the hybrid, for the grain-filled period. This is when the plants’ primary focus is to fully develop the kernels.

• If there is severe heat or moisture stress during the grain-fill period, the plants start to cannibalize their leaves and stalks to fulfill the growing needs of their progeny, the seeds or grain.

• Plants, like animals, don’t want to produce runts. So, if there is stress during the grain-fill period, the plants start to abort the youngest kernels causing tip die-backs so that the remaining kernels can fully develop.

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Cover crops and flooding

The challenging growing conditions in Ohio this year have exaggerated problems that may not be that significant under normal conditions. Problem fields with disease, drainage issues and soil compaction have been particularly disastrous with the persistent 2015 rains.

Among the soggier areas of the state early this summer was Mercer County, where some areas got more than 17 inches of rain in the month of June.

“Most farmers got everything in and got sidedressing done,” said Gary Fennig, of Fennig Equipment, of the area around Coldwater. “Locally here there is not much prevented planting, but there is a lot of unevenness in corn and a lot of drowned out areas.”

Fennig spent much of June dodging rain showers while working to custom apply nutrients, particularly nitrogen in struggling corn fields. While problems show up under tough conditions, it is also easier to see some of the positive things going on in fields as well.

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Integrated Ag Services recognized

Dave Scheiderer, founder, Integrated Ag Services (IAS) of Milford Center, has been named 2015 Precision Ag Crop Adviser/Entrepreneur award winner by the PrecisionAg Institute through its annual PrecisionAg Awards of Excellence.

The international recognition is presented to one individual or team who have established a demonstrable expertise in precision technologies and practices by devising a new tool/concept/procedure, or who have used their expertise to the benefit of their grower-customers. The award recognizes excellence in four areas: innovation, leadership/professionalism, stewardship, and overall impact on precision farming.

“I am honored to accept this award on behalf of the entire IAS team,” Scheiderer said. “This recognition is a direct result of their hard work and commitment to our customers — the farmers we work with every day. The IAS team is the most knowledgeable, service oriented, committed group of people I have ever had the privilege of working with — and I am simply representing them in accepting this award.”

Scheiderer was nominated by Dain Bruns of Marysville.

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Ohio wheat had a tough year

With wet weather harvest delays, deep discounts on delivery and low yield at the end, wheat had a rough year. Are there reasons we should still grow wheat?

  • Crop rotation — wheat adds a third crop to our rotation. Generally we get a 10% yield bump to the next crop in the rotation. And with a three-crop rotation we reduce disease and insect pressure for all crops.
  • Wheat can be a good cover crop. We can plant it after soybean harvest, unlike other cover crops. We can even plant it after corn, but be aware that Fusarium head blight will likely be worse if you are planning on grain harvest. Wheat, like oats and cereal rye will help hold onto nitrates. If we want we can graze wheat, or if we get a good stand and have good prospects, we can keep it to harvest as grain. This may be our perfect cover crop.
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Soybean diseases the target of new university partnership

Purdue Extension has joined six other universities from the Midwest and Ontario, Canada, in a partnership with the North Central Soybean Research Program to create a series of reference materials helping producers identify and manage a variety of soybean diseases.

The Soybean Disease Management series will be updated regularly with the latest available information on diseases and management options, said Kiersten Wise, Purdue Extension plant pathologist.

“We are entering the time of the season when symptoms of many soybean diseases begin to emerge,” she said. “With the wet conditions we had earlier in the year, we may see more soybean disease issues in 2015, and it is important that farmers know what is going on in their fields.”

Wise said the project began in 2013 with the outbreak of Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus.

“This was a new disease in many states and we realized that there was very little information available to provide to farmers about this disease,” she said.

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FSA releases prevented planting numbers

The Farm Service Agency released numbers for 2015 crop acres in the United States that will certainly impact the yield and production numbers moving forward. Statewide, Ohio had 26,423 prevented planting acres of corn and 91,032 acres of prevented planting soybeans. Here is a graph of the acres by county in Ohio that offers a number of insights into the current crop year. Defiance County led the state in prevented planting acres with 34,678.

State/County NameSum of Planted AcresSum of Volunteer AcresSum of Failed AcresSum of Prevented AcresSum of Not Planted Acres

 

ADAMS82,4783004170
ALLEN160,76923081,7800
ASHLAND97,6424,906136541
ASHTABULA69,64127807,6510
ATHENS20,3921,0479980
AUGLAIZE187,24302378749
BELMONT11,1017210210
BROWN122,7263,26804590
BUTLER72,2015,406107910
CARROLL28,452002030
CHAMPAIGN197,1410794720
CLARK120,9991,90704083
CLERMONT60,1142,03605770
CLINTON182,7670255688
COLUMBINA71,910001630
COSHOCTON74,771943325060
CRAWFORD212,08437594460
CUYAHOGA3922000
DARKE295,5343982146210
DEFIANCE154,34741,48034,6780
DELAWARE119,144428474310
ERIE74,26801321250
FAIRFIELD147,8512,9881699492
FAYETTE206,9791501540
FRANKLIN38,9962390413
FULTON189,8971,319568850
GALLIA17,74200604
GEAUGA11,2715909210
GREENE136,2983,535284390
GUERNSEY24,9753260700
HAMILTON8,388268000
HANCOCK227,19624540
HARDIN226,9680515190
HARRISON12,1455,625011812
HENRY210,02502352,1450
HIGHLAND193,44821718260
HOCKING10,9801,000000
HOLMES58,892001310
HURON180,511554733,09910
JACKSON25,89147719650
JEFFERSON5,8846,82991700
KNOX119,1289,150171220
LAKE2,246680460
LAWRENCE6,39100025
LICKING148,032017685930
LOGAN183,2991411851,023703
LORAIN89,393221672,1670
LUCAS-E15,1743282,633112
LUCAS-WES41,45014601,2801
MADISON223,4861,069427320
MAHONING42,393003150
MARION185,656022220
MEDINA57,26702622910
MEIGS10,239165038256
MERCER242,98891121,3948
MIAMI166,2831592160
MONROE3,82961000
MONTGOMRY76,0971,38901500
MORGAN17,8631,6240680
MORROW128,7321,31805730
MUSKINGUM64,8555,41604168
NOBLE8,136119000
OTTAWA82,682863838,6310
PAULDING187,5901501,49913,7841,079
PERRY38,7124290960
PICKAWAY225,9292,9210904
PIKE26,41500170
PORTAGE44,3620069112
PREBLE172,7452,42703830
PUTNAM230,135316489,1080
RICHLAND82,4523,08973201
ROSS158,3381920260
SANDUSKY169,75302031,44638
SCIOTO27,88300500
SENECA237,5711,142108052
SHELBY186,9111,6452404,1320
STARK72,94441302250
SUMMIT4,74300450
TRUMBULL60,008901,3560
TUSCARAWA64,76204960
UNION176,3191201830
VAN WERT209,6251229906,0121
VINTON8,1981260240
WARREN64,2203,74184450
WASHINGTO31,38100470
WAYNE133,2851,195547860
WILLIAMS165,4526932269,7600
WOOD285,61716105,5490
WYANDOT201,9671781250
ADAMS82,4783004170
ALLEN160,76923081,7800
ASHLAND97,6424,906136541
ASHTABULA69,64127807,6510
ATHENS20,3921,0479980
AUGLAIZE187,24302378749
BELMONT11,1017210210
BROWN122,7263,26804590
BUTLER72,2015,406107910
CARROLL28,452002030
CHAMPAIGN197,1410794720
CLARK120,9991,90704083
CLERMONT60,1142,03605770
CLINTON182,7670255688
COLUMBINA71,910001630
COSHOCTON74,771943325060
CRAWFORD212,08437594460
CUYAHOGA3922000
DARKE295,5343982146210
DEFIANCE154,34741,48034,6780
DELAWARE119,144428474310
ERIE74,26801321250
FAIRFIELD147,8512,9881699492
FAYETTE206,9791501540
FRANKLIN38,9962390413
FULTON189,8971,319568850
GALLIA17,74200604
GEAUGA11,2715909210
GREENE136,2983,535284390
GUERNSEY24,9753260700
HAMILTON8,388268000
HANCOCK227,19624540
HARDIN226,9680515190
HARRISON12,1455,625011812
HENRY210,02502352,1450
HIGHLAND193,44821718260
HOCKING10,9801,000000
HOLMES58,892001310
HURON180,511554733,09910
JACKSON25,89147719650
JEFFERSON5,8846,82991700
KNOX119,1289,150171220
LAKE2,246680460
LAWRENCE6,39100025
LICKING148,032017685930
LOGAN183,2991411851,023703
LORAIN89,393221672,1670
LUCAS-E15,1743282,633112
LUCAS-WES41,45014601,2801
MADISON223,4861,069427320
MAHONING42,393003150
MARION185,656022220
MEDINA57,26702622910
MEIGS10,239165038256
MERCER242,98891121,3948
MIAMI166,2831592160
MONROE3,82961000
MONTGOMRY76,0971,38901500
MORGAN17,8631,6240680
MORROW128,7321,31805730
MUSKINGUM64,8555,41604168
NOBLE8,136119000
OTTAWA82,682863838,6310
PAULDING187,5901501,49913,7841,079
PERRY38,7124290960
PICKAWAY225,9292,9210904
PIKE26,41500170
PORTAGE44,3620069112
PREBLE172,7452,42703830
PUTNAM230,135316489,1080
RICHLAND82,4523,08973201
ROSS158,3381920260
SANDUSKY169,75302031,44638
SCIOTO27,88300500
SENECA237,5711,142108052
SHELBY186,9111,6452404,1320
STARK72,94441302250
SUMMIT4,74300450
TRUMBULL60,008901,3560
TUSCARAWA64,76204960
UNION176,3191201830
VAN WERT209,6251229906,0121
VINTON8,1981260240
WARREN64,2203,74184450
WASHINGTO31,38100470
WAYNE133,2851,195547860
WILLIAMS165,4526932269,7600
WOOD285,61716105,5490
WYANDOT201,9671781250
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Ohio counties designated disaster areas

The United States Department of Agriculture has designated Butler, Darke, Defiance, Hamilton, Mercer, Paulding, Preble, and Van Wert counties as natural disaster areas due to excessive rain and flooding in the region in 2015.

With this disaster designation, agricultural producers in these counties are eligible to be considered for assistance from the Farm Service Agency, including emergency loans. Eligible farmers have eight months from the date of the official disaster declaration to apply for emergency loans and can receive guidance in applying for these loans from their local FSA office.

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Fertilizer applicator certification field day

A three-hour fertilizer application certification program for any applicator that does not have a pesticide license will be offered on August 27, 2015 from 8:45 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. at Dulls Homestead, Inc. at 10404 National Rd, Brookville, Ohio 45309. The morning will include topics on phosphorus and nitrogen recommendations, soil sampling, assessing nitrogen usage of corn in the field and looking at timing and placement of manure applications for maximized economic return. Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) and Ohio Certified Livestock Manager (CLM) credits will be available. Pre-registration is preferred and you can register by calling the Miami County OSU Extension office at 937-440-3945 or the Montgomery County OSU Extension office at 937-224-9654 x109 or emailing bennett.709@osu.edu or mills-wasniak.1@osu.edu. Find full agenda here.

Agricultural fertilizer applicator certification is required for farmers who apply fertilizer to more than 50 acres of agricultural production grown primarily for sale. Farmers who have their fertilizer applied by co-ops or custom applicators are not required to be certified. 

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August weather outlook

The outlook for August calls for slightly warmer than normal temperatures and normal and slightly drier than normal. Normal rainfall is about 0.75 inches per week in August.

As we go into the end of the growing season in September temperatures will likely remain normal or slightly warmer than normal with rainfall normal.

However, as we get into harvest season indications are it will turn wetter than normal for October and November . This will challenge harvest season again! This will add to an already tough year on Ohio crops.

All indications are with wetness setting in during fall, the frost and freeze season will likely be later than normal.

For the latest rainfall 16-day rainfall outlooks from NOAA Ohio River Forecast Center, please visit:

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/ohrfc/HAS/images/NAEFS16day.pdf

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Tri-State Yield Monitor Workshop

A Yield Monitor Data Workshop is scheduled for Tuesday August 25th and Wednesday the 26th in Auburn, Indiana. Steve Miller (MSU) has been coordinating this event – see attached flyer.  This two-day program features John Fulton, Ohio State University Precision Ag specialist and Bob Nielson, Purdue Agronomy corn specialist. This workshop provides a quick overview of precision agriculture then focuses on the basics of yield monitors and what is necessary to effectively use the extensive amount of data generated. Email Steve Miller (mill1229@msu.edu) or Lyndon Kelley (kelleyl@anr.msu.edu) or Call 269-467-5522 with questions.

TOPICS TO BE COVERED INCLUDE:

  • Current State of Precision Agriculture
  • Making Yield Data work for you
  • Precision Ag Technology for On‐Farm Research
  • Yield Monitors—basics of calibration and processing data—data cleaning
  • Hands on working with real data
  • Demos

Cost is $50.00 per person, includes lunch Tuesday and Wednesdays and refreshment breaks. Location is the 4-H Exhibit Hall at the DeKalb County Fairgrounds, 708 S Union St, Auburn, IN 46706.

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2015 1-75/I-71 Ohio Crop Tour summary

I-71 Day 1 video recapAgro_liquid_logo_

I-75 Day 1 video recap

I-71 Day 2 video recap

I-75 Day 2 video recap

I-71 Day 1 results here

I-75 Day 1 results here

I-71 Day 2 results here

I-75 Day 2 results here

It seems that this year, both in Ohio and around the nation, the final yields will be all about balance. There is no doubt there are disastrous conditions out there. We encountered some extremely poor fields — some of the worst we have ever seen — in northwest Ohio. There were also a tremendous number of unplanted fields in the region.

In contrast, though, other parts of Ohio may very well have record breaking yields. Some areas may have bin-busting yields and total losses in the same field. The ultimate question is will Ohio’s final yield more closely reflect the disasters we found in the northwest or the monster yields we found further south.

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Agronomy College

The Ohio AgriBusiness Association and Ohio State Extension will partner to hold the Farm Science Review Agronomy College on Sept. 15. The event is designed to educate agronomists, Certified Crop Advisers and custom applicators on current agronomy issues.

The Agronomy College will be held at the Molly Caren Agricultural Center (MCAC) in London. Registration starts at 8:30 a.m. and the event runs from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Participants will spend the morning with OSU Extension staff in the agronomy plots at MCAC. The afternoon will consist of breakout sessions, with topics including spray nozzle selection, tillage and nutrient application, UAV and remote sensing, and precision ag. The Agronomy College will also allow participants to receive CCA and pesticide application credits.

“We want to provide agronomists and applicators with information that will better prepare them to help their customers,” said Harold Watters, CPAg, CCA, and assistant professor in agricultural and natural resources at OSU.

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2015 Ohio Crop Tour I-75 Day #1 Video recap

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

It was a day of incredible variability for the tour in western Ohio. We saw 200-bushel corn fields and generous estimates of 70 bushels per acre in other fields. The Putnam, Paulding, and Van Wert County fields were dismal, while Hancock, Allen and Auglaize offered much more impressive fields. The average yield for the day in the northwest quadrant of the state was 141 bushels per acre. We can’t wait to see what awaits as we move into southern Ohio.

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2015 Ohio Crop Tour I-71 Day #1 Video Recap

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

The crew from the I-71 leg of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour recap what they saw in 10 counties from Medina to Licking counties on Day #1. The average yield for the day was 175 bushels per acre.

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Late season diseases showing up in expected places in 2015

All of the rain during May, June, and July continues to impact the soybean crop in some areas of the state during 2015 in Ohio.  Surveys of our plots and some scouting in the lower canopy have turned up some surprises and some we expected.

  1. Sclerotinia stem rot – Over the next two weeks we will begin to see above canopy symptoms.  Stem lesions are now evident in some of our historic white mold fields below the canopy.  With Sclerotinia, white fluffy mycelium is evident on the stem, while leaves turn a gray-green and stay on the plant.  Photo: White mold on soybeans
  2. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) –We received  several samples and calls last week on susceptible varieties.  The plants showed the classic yellow spots between the veins on the leaves which  will then turn brown. (Photo:Sudden Death Syndrome on soybeans ) Symptoms on leaves will continue to progress and eventually the leaflets will drop from the plants leaving the petioles attached. 
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Do cover crops reduce leaf diseases?

Five years ago a lot of the ground was left bare during winter without any cover crops. Recent surveys have indicated that the number of farmers using cover crops in the Corn Belt states is increasing every year.

Many benefits of cover crops have been reported but a major advantage has not been emphasized. While scouting corn fields during the last three years, I have noticed fewer disease lesions of fungal diseases like Northern Corn Leaf Blight (NCLB) and Gray Leaf Spot (GLS) in fields following cover crops than those following corn or even soybeans. The disease lesions were more prevalent even on fields where corn was grown two years ago in a corn-beans rotation.

I scouted some corn fields near Batesville, Indiana in the last three years and saw several fields with NCLB and GLS where cover crops were not used. However, less than 20 miles away where Marshall Alford has been using cover crops for many years, I had hard time finding any disease lesions on hybrids with exactly the same genetics.

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Fertilizer certification in Brookville

A three-hour fertilizer application certification program for any applicator that does not have a pesticide license will be offered on August 27, 2015 from 8:45 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. at Dulls Homestead, Inc. at 10404 National Rd, Brookville, Ohio 45309. The morning will include topics on phosphorus and nitrogen recommendations, soil sampling, assessing nitrogen usage of corn in the field and looking at timing and placement of manure applications for maximized economic return. Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) and Ohio Certified Livestock Manager (CLM) credits will be available. Pre-registration is preferred and you can register by calling the Miami County OSU Extension office at 937-440-3945 or the Montgomery County OSU Extension office at 937-224-9654 x109 or emailing bennett.709@osu.edu or mills-wasniak.1@osu.edu.

Agricultural fertilizer applicator certification is required for farmers who apply fertilizer to more than 50 acres of agricultural production grown primarily for sale. Farmers who have their fertilizer applied by co-ops or custom applicators are not required to be certified. 

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2015 Ohio Crop Tour I-71 Day #1

Agro_liquid_logo_

Presented by: Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #1

See results from the I-75 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

See results from the I-71 Route of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for Day #2

Medina County

Corn Summary: For the initial stop of the 2015 Ohio Crop Tour for the I-71 route we found a decent corn field. The only thing that will hurt this field’s potential is the 23,000 population. You will also see in the pictures below that there were some spots that were a little more wet over the growing season and those ears were still developing due to a later planting date. Disease was seldom seen here with a little gray leaf spot below the ear.

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