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New products available for treating spider mites

With continued dry weather, the pest we’ve been getting the most calls about is the spider mite. This is just a reminder that vigilant scouting for this pest is a good idea right now.

It is also important to re-scout five days after treatment because many products will not kill the eggs, and populations can resurge. Any necessary follow-up treatment should be made with a product with a different mode of action to reduce resistance development. So, for example, if you used something with bifenthrin the first time, you might switch to Lorsban the second time, or vice versa.

There are two miticides that are newly labeled for spider mite management in soybean and/or some types of corn: Agri-Mek from Sygenta and Zeal from Valent. We at OSU have not tested these products yet, but are currently running trials with both of them in northwestern Ohio.

Economic thresholds based on the number of mites per plant have not been established for spider mites on soybeans.

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Wheat yield contest yields big results

Seed Consultants would like to congratulate the following winners of our 2016 Project 150 Wheat Yield Contest and recognize them for producing outstanding wheat yields through sound management practices on their farms:

•           1st Place: Ron Foor and Jim Cunningham, Washington Court House, Ohio:  SC 13S26; 140.81 bushels per acre

•           2nd Place: Lyle Burseik, Helena, Ohio:  SC 1325-15; 134.28 bushels per acre

•           3rd Place: Beiser Brothers, Somerville, Ohio:  SC 13S26; 133.35 bushels per acre

Seed Consultants would like to thank all of our customers who participated in the 2016 Project 150 Wheat Yield Contest.  For more information on entering SC Yield Contests contact your local seedsman or check out our website at www.seedconsultants.com

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Ohio’s Crop Progress —August 1st, 2016

Rains Bypass Dry Areas

Isolated areas received varied amounts of rainfall, which helped corn and soybean progress, while other areas are still experiencing severe dry conditions, according to Cheryl Turner, Ohio State Statistician of the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. There were 6.0 days available for fieldwork for the week ending July 31st. Oat harvest continued to progress well ahead of the five year average. Corn, soybeans, hay, and pasture conditions all declined from previous week. Concern for corn during pollination remained high. Livestock producers reported feeding hay, and noted that the prospects for the 2016 hay crop were declining.

Click here to see the full report

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Got waterhemp? Find out the herbicide resistance characteristics now

We have spent a lot of time educating and warning about Palmer amaranth, but while we were doing this, waterhemp has become a more widespread problem. Waterhemp is only a little less fun to deal with than Palmer amaranth, and has a tendency to fairly rapidly develop resistance to any new sites of action used repeatedly against it in POST treatments.

Submitted questions and photos to confirm identification of this weed increased substantially this summer over previous years. Waterhemp infestations can be found around the state, with a concentration in west central Ohio. We assume all waterhemp populations are resistant to site 2 herbicides (ALS), but in our screening so far, not all populations are resistant to glyphosate. Populations in western Ohio tend to be glyphosate-resistant at this point, but populations in other parts of Ohio not necessarily so. Some populations that are glyphosate-resistant appear to have developed at least a low level of resistance to site 14 (PPO) herbicides as well.

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Be on the lookout for spider mites

With continued hot, dry weather it is important to remain vigilant for emerging twospotted spider mite problems in field crops.  Look for characteristic yellow stippling on leaves and confirm the presence of mites by tapping vegetation over a piece of black construction paper (which works better than white paper, though white will do) and looking for dust that crawls.  Increasing mite populations often start on field edges, and edge treatments may work if problems are caught early.  But if mites are found beyond the field borders and if conditions are very favorable for mite increase (continued hot, dry weather with low chance of rain), either make your treatment decision for the whole field, or be prepared to scout often and vigilantly and treat quickly when interior populations increase.

Threshold recommendations for spider mites in soybean are summarized in a previous newsletter article:

http://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/insect-pests-we%E2%80%99re-watching-now

For thresholds for spider mites in corn we follow recommendations developed by Texas A&M, which can be found at this link:

http://lubbock.tamu.edu/files/2011/11/Corn_Guide_2010.pdf

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Pumpkin field day

This year’s Aug. 18 Pumpkin Field Day will offer growers valuable research updates regarding disease, insect and weed control as well as state-of-the-art demonstrations on the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, for more efficient pest detection.

Organized by the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University, the event will be held from 6-8 p.m. at the Western Agricultural Research Station, 7721 South Charleston Pike, in South Charleston.

“The field day will feature some traditional stops, including an eight-treatment powdery mildew fungicide demonstration trial, a variety trial with 12 powdery mildew-resistant hybrids ranging from small to large fruit, and a downy mildew sentinel plot,” said Jim Jasinski, Ohio State University Extension educator and Integrated Pest Management program coordinator.

Drone imagery

OSU Extension is the outreach arm of the college. The Western Agricultural Research Station is part of a statewide network of research farms run by the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

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Ohio’s Crop Progress — July 25th, 2016

Spotty statewide brought relief to some, but left many others to contend with the effects of continued hot and dry weather, according to Cheryl Turner, Ohio State Statistician of the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. There were 6.3 days available for fieldwork for the week ending July 24th . The only crop benefitting from conditions was oats, where lack of rainfall kept disease at bay and sped harvest well ahead of the five year average. Conditions favored cutting and baling of dry hay, but did little for regrowth and yields. Many livestock producers have been feeding hay as well, creating concerns for a potential hay shortage during the upcoming winter. Wheat harvest concluded for all but a few fields. The harsh conditions were reflected in condition ratings. Corn rated good to excellent fell to 60 percent from 64 percent last week. Leaf rolling was a common sight, and early firing of stalks was observed in some areas, possibly due to the nitrogen loss experienced during the wet spring.

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Have you thought about a cover crop?

We get calls most summers about growing cover crops in Ohio after winter wheat. Often in the past couple of years the calls have related to producing nitrogen after wheat for the next crop — usually corn. The short answer is that we have difficulty in Ohio, with our short season after wheat harvest, in growing that perfect cover crop. When my grandfather had a four- to five-year rotation that included two years of clover, then yes you could grow some nitrogen for corn. With our short rotations of corn, soybean then maybe wheat and the income demands of cash rent farming, it is difficult to allow any cover crop to grow for more than a few months.

The search is for that perfect crop that provides great cover, is cheap and easy to establish and provides a benefit. I worked with winter peas over several years and have found that it an easy crop to establish, it is relatively cheap to plant and it does grow some nitrogen.

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Agronomists, CCAs and custom applicators invited to FSR Agronomy College

Agronomists, Certified Crop Advisers (CCA) and custom applicators can stay current on agronomy issues on the grounds of the Farm Science Review this September.

The Farm Science Review Agronomy College, hosted by the Ohio AgriBusiness Association in partnership with Ohio State University Extension, will bring industry experts, OSU staff and researchers, and agronomy service providers together to enhance collective knowledge and learning at the Molly Caren Agricultural Center in London, Ohio, on Sept. 13 — one week before the start of the annual three-day farm show.

“The Agronomy College provides insightful information and education for agronomists and applicators to better serve their customers,” said Harold Watters, certified professional agronomist, CCA and assistant professor in agricultural and natural resources at Ohio State. “Attendees will be able to confidently apply current research and knowledge in their businesses as a result of this event.”

The full-day event features time with OSU Extension staff in the field at the small agronomy plots and larger demonstration field on the east side of the grounds.

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Western bean cutworms count rising and eggs hatching

We have seen a large increase in Western Bean Cutworm catches (see figure), which is typical for this time of year. Given the heat in the forecast later this week, it might be safe to say that we are into peak flight.  We have also heard of eggs hatching—as more adults emerge, more eggs will be laid. Now is the time to scout your corn for egg masses, especially if they have not tasseled yet. Economic threshold is more than 5-8% of corn (10 plants in 10 locations) with egg masses.

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Time to scout: Here’s what to watch for

Now is an optimum time to scout your corn and soybean fields. This time of year you can begin to gain knowledge on the progress and condition of your crop.

Some key items to assess in the corn crop can be, but aren’t limited to: pollination, kernel development, and amount and/or type of foliar disease present in corn fields. Some soybean key items to assess can be: pod set, flower development, pod fill and amount and/or type of foliar disease. However, there seems to be fairly common objections from growers when it comes to scouting fields during this time frame. Whether it has to do with the heat, humidity, pollen shed or wet soybean canopies from morning dews, whatever your objection might be, let’s take a look at the disease triangle and how it can help guide our scouting trips to make them more efficient and productive. Three things must be present for diseases to occur, also known as the three legs of the disease triangle.

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Fhb1 fusarium head blight gene

Although not as prevalent this year, one problem that eastern Corn Belt wheat growers face frequently is Fusarium Head Blight (Scab). This disease can cause significant yield loss in addition to reduced grain quality and high levels of mycotoxins. Growers have effectively managed head scab with timely fungicide applications.

One additional too available to growers for management of Fusarium Head Blight is gene resistance. The Fhb1 gene is widely recognized as an outstanding source of head scab resistance in wheat. This gene is effective in reducing the DON (Deoxynivalenol) levels in wheat, ultimately resulting in better grain quality. DON levels are a major concern in wheat because they cause animal feed refusal, sickness, and decreased weight gain.

For the 2016-2017 sales season Seed Consultants, Inc. is offering a new wheat variety (SC 13S26) with the Fhb1 gene. The Fhb1 gene provides Type II resistance, which slows down or inhibits the spread of the pathogens from the initial infection site.

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Ohio’s Crop Progress — July 18th, 2016

Dry weather allowed growers to make large gains on oat harvest this week, as well as continued progress on wheat harvest and hay cutting, according to Cheryl Turner, Ohio State Statistician of the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. There were 6.1 days suitable for fieldwork for the week ending July 17th. While hay cutting continues in earnest, the dry weather has slowed growth and lessened yield from second and third hay cuttings. There is some browning in pastures, as very little rain has fallen throughout the state. Corn and soybeans look good, but will need moisture as they continue to mature. Early planted soybeans are faring better than later planted soybeans. Some fields are looking stressed, but are still in good condition overall. Other activities this week included weed mowing and spraying fields.

Read the full report here

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Precision ag sprayer day Aug. 9

Large-scale pesticide application takes skill. Farmers, retailers and crop consultants can increase their know-how by attending the Northwest Ohio Precision Ag Sprayer Day at the Fulton County Fairgrounds on Aug. 9.

“They have to make sure their sprayers are calibrated, rates are correct, drift is reduced as much as possible, and application coverage is the best it can be,” said Eric Richer, agriculture and natural resources educator for Ohio State University Extension and organizer of the event. “There will be a wide variety of precision spray equipment demonstrated that day, all the way from the most advanced self-propelled sprayers costing hundreds of thousands of dollars down to four-wheeler or ATV small sprayers. From a budget perspective, we’ll be covering a wide spectrum.

“We’ll also talk about the latest and greatest in nozzle technologies. Costs can range from just a couple of dollars to $10 to $12 for a single nozzle.”

The event takes place from 8 a.m.

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Warm water works better in herbicide applications

A new Purdue Extension publication gives applicators of postemergence herbicides insights into the importance of mixing herbicides with water at optimum temperatures to make them most effective.

Guidance offered in Water Temperature and Herbicide Performance is based on research by Purdue University weed scientists who studied the effectiveness of certain herbicides on several weed species when mixed with spray water at various temperatures. The researchers concluded that moderate to warm water — but not hot — was better than cold.

“We give the guidelines of not using cold water in the early spring or late fall,” said Pratap Devkota, the lead researcher and graduate research assistant to weed scientist Bill Johnson. “Make sure you use moderate to warm water. The right water temperature is one of the components of herbicide application.”

Farmers generally are not aware of that, Devkota said, because there has been little research on the topic.

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Alphabet soup of corn development

When discussing growth and development of a corn plant, a grower very quickly is submerged into a world of alphabet soup. There are all kinds of Vs, Rs and Ts used and while the system was designed to make things easier, all the letters grouped together can be quite confusing.

Prior to silking, corn growth is measured in “V” stages or vegetative stages. For each new collar (fully developed leaf) a corn plant moves to another “V” stage. For instance a corn plant with five collars is considered to be at V5 growth stage. After VT (tassel emergence) the development of the corn crop is marked in “R” stages or reproductive stages.

There is considerable amount of effort and time spent on the vegetative stages, but little time spent on the rest. Below is a quick guide to help follow the corn crop from tasseling to harvest:

 

R1 — silking

This occurs when silks have emerged from the tip of the ear shoot on 50% of the plants.

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Pollination underway in early planted corn

According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service  for the week ending 7-10-16, 7% of the state’s corn was silking compared to 17% for the  5-year average. Given the range in corn planting dates this year, some late planted (corn planted in early-mid June corn) may not achieve tasselling and silking until late July. The pollination period, the flowering stage in corn, is the most critical period in the development of a corn plant from the standpoint of grain yield determination. Stress conditions (such as hail damage and drought) have the greatest impact on yield potential during the reproductive stage. The following are some key steps in the corn pollination process.

Most corn hybrids tassel and silk about the same time although some variability exists among hybrids and environments. On a typical midsummer day, peak pollen shed occurs in the morning between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m. followed by a second round of pollen shed late in the afternoon.

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Muck Crops Field Day

Researchers with the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University will offer a July 28 field day focusing on the needs of fresh-market vegetable producers that will offer farmers the latest information on diseases facing muck crops.

The Muck Crops Field Day is from 9 a.m. to noon at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center’s Muck Crops Agricultural Research Station, 4875 state Route 103 S in Willard.

The station covers 15-plus acres of high-organic-matter muck soil in Huron County’s productive “salad bowl” region, said Bob Filbrun, the station’s manager.

The workshop will also offer growers information on several research trials being conducted at the station, including a look at herbicides used on nurse crops such as barley and oats, Filbrun said.

“The field day will include a session that focuses on what issues local muck crop growers are facing this year on their farms and how things are going for them in production so far this season,” he said.

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Insects to watch for this summer

With continued dry weather, spider mites are one of the main pests to remain vigilant about in field crops. They will often show up in field borders first as they move in from other habitats, for example if nearby ditches have been mowed. Spider mites are difficult to see. Look for injury signs — yellow spotting or stippling on the upper side of leaves. In soybean this damage usually begins in the lower canopy and progresses upward as the mite population increases. Heavily infested leaves may also have light webbing similar to spider webs.

There are no number-based thresholds available for mites, in part because counting them is not practical in a scouting context. During drought populations can increase rapidly so scouting every four to five days in recommended during drought conditions. Walk a broad pattern in the field and examine at least two plants in each of 20 locations. Use the following scale developed by the University of Minnesota to evaluate spider mite damage in soybean, with treatment recommended at level 3.

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ARC County looking forward: Making county of payment choice for 2016-2018

Farmers with the administration of their farms consolidated at one FSA office may want to examine their ARC-CO projected payments for 2016 to 2018. If no decision to change is made, ARC-CO payments will be calculated on the average yields for the administrative FSA office county, regardless of where the land is physically located. Earlier in the year, FSA announced that farmers could elect to have the 2014 and/or the 2015 ARC-CO payments calculated on the county in which the land is physically located. For some farms this was financially beneficial. However, do not expect 2016 to be like previous years since the high yields that reduced payments in a few locations (Defiance County 2014, and Ross County 2015) are now included in the formula to determine the payment.

Visual maps for farmers to reference for the 2016 to 2018 payment projections have been created. With the assumption that corn and soybean yields will average 5% above the county Olympic average for 2016 and wheat yields will average 10% above the county Olympic average for 2016.

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