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Ohio’s numbers from USDA Feb. 8 reports

We’ve heard about the national and world side of crop and livestock production from the Feb. 8 USDA reports, but what about Ohio?

Ohio Annual Crop Summary

Ohio’s 2018 average corn yield was 187 bushels per acre, a new State record, according to Cheryl Turner, State Statistician, USDA NASS, Ohio Field Office. Growers harvested 3.30 million acres for grain, up 5 percent from 2017. Total production of corn for grain was 617 million bushels, up 11 percent from the 2017. Ohio’s average soybean yield for 2018 was 58 bushels per acre, also a new State record. Growers harvested 4.98 million acres, down 2 percent from 2017. Production, at 289 million bushels, was also an all-time high.

The full report.

Winter Wheat Seedings

Ohio winter wheat seeded area for 2019 is estimated at 460,000 acres, a decrease of 6 percent from last year, according to Cheryl Turner, State Statistician of the USDA NASS, Ohio Field Office.

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Double-crop soybean yields after barley in Northwest Ohio

By Eric Richer, CCA, Sarah Noggle, Garth Ruff, Ohio State University Extension

Several growers across the state had the opportunity to grow winter malting barley in 2018. We had the opportunity to work with eight of those growers from Northwest Ohio, in particular, to learn more about the viability of growing this newly, re-introduced crop. As a learning cohort of sorts, these growers agreed to share their yield and quality data results while participating in a simple, field-scale research project with these two objectives:

1) Determine the field-scale, simple averages for yield (grain & straw), harvest date and quality characteristics for barley grown in Northwest Ohio.

Simply put: Can we grow barley with high yield and good quality?

2) Compare the yield and plant/harvest dates for the same variety soybean as a i) first crop system, ii) double crop after barley system and iii) double crop after wheat system.

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Big, but neutral, USDA report day

By Doug Tenney, Leist Mercantile

Finally, the numbers.

It looks to be a neutral report. Corn and soybean production reduced as expected. Corn fed to livestock was reduced 125 million bushels while ethanol was cut 25 million bushels. Soybean exports are down 25 million bushels, crush up 10 million bushels.

The market and traders were thrilled with finally seeing some numbers from USDA today at noon. For weeks market participation has been reduced with daily volumes moving lower and narrow daily ranges. This past week corn has seen days with less than a two-cent range while soybeans could not muster a five-cent daily range. The market thrives on information. Today we get a massive dump of numbers.

USDA published both the January and February numbers that are found in the Supply and Demand Report. They included final 2018 corn and soybean yields and production, and quarterly grain stocks as of Dec.

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Initial Brazil soybean harvest not record-breaking, still solid

Soybean harvest in Parana, Brazil, the country’s second-largest soybean-producing state, has reached 25%, well ahead of the 2018 pace.

Brazilian government forecasting agency DERAL says, although the state suffered through a mini-drought in December, early yield results show no material losses. Only 6% of the state’s soy fields are reportedly in bad condition. The number his still higher than last year’s zero ‘bad’ fields.

DERAL says 24% of fields are considered average, compared to 14% in the last cycle. The remaining fields are considered in good condition. As it stands currently, Brazil’s crop will be short of the record-high estimates of 122 million metric tons. Weather issues in Brazil are not widespread or significant enough to put a major dent in production.

Elsewhere in South America, harvest expectations in Argentina are nearing 53- to 55-million metric tons, coming off 38 MMT in 2018.

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The LL-GT27 soybean — what’s legal?

By Mark Loux, Ohio State University Extension weed control specialist

We are starting to see the availability of soybean varieties with more than two herbicide resistance traits, which can expand the herbicide options, improve control, and allow multiple site of action tank mixes that reduce the rate of selection for resistance. One of these is the Enlist soybean, with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and 2,4-D. As of this writing, full approval for the Enlist soybean is still being held up by the Philippines (because they can apparently).

The other is the LL-GT27 soybean, which has resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and isoxaflutole (Balance). There is no label for use of isoxaflutole on this soybean yet, but it is legal to apply both glyphosate and glufosinate. In Ohio, as long as neither label prohibits applying a mixture of two herbicides labeled for a specific use, it’s legal to apply the mixture. So, it’s also legal to apply a mixture of glyphosate and glufosinate to the LL-GT27 soybean.

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Conservation Tillage & Technology Conference March 5 and 6

By Randall Reeder, Ohio State University Extension

CTC at Ada, March 5-6 (Tuesday-Wednesday), will feature about 75 speakers on a wide range of topics. Here are a few highlights.

Bob Nielsen, Purdue U., returns, speaking about on-farm research. The session on Precision Ag & Digital Technologies includes several of our County Extension Educators discussing their on-farm research results (published in the 2018 eFields book).

Nutrient Management is a hot topic to be covered by 11 speakers. A Water Quality session on Wednesday includes results of several research projects. Many of the speakers both days are intent on keeping P and N on the farmland and out of waterways leading to Lake Erie or the Gulf of Mexico. This session starts at 8:00 am.

The Soil Health and Cover Crops session also starts at 8:00 am, in the Chapel. Featured speakers include NRCS Soil Health Specialists, Barry Fisher and Jim Hoorman. Jason Weller, formerly Chief of NRCS and now with Land O’Lakes, will speak on “Venture Conservation: Public + Private Solutions for Healthier Soils.”

In addition to Bob Nielsen, Corn University includes Kurt Steinke of Michigan State and Emerson Nafziger, Illinois.

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Crop rotation and second year soybean yields

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA Product Manager, Seed Consultants, Inc.

As spring approaches and plans for the 2019 crop are finalized, growers will determine what crops to plant and plant crop rotation across their acres. When considering crop rotations and yields, many focus on continuous corn and the yield penalties associated with that practices. However, there is one possibly overlooked benefit of crop rotation: avoiding a soybean yield penalty.

In this article, the University of Kentucky’s John Grove discusses soybean yields for first year and second year soybeans from 2009 to 2016. Grove’s research data shows an average yield penalty of 2.3 bushels per acre across that 7-year period, with some years being showing yield losses greater than 10 bushels per acre. In another article from No-Till Farmer, Greg Roth shows data that predicts a four- to six-bushel per acre yield penalty for second year soybeans.

Yield loses from continuous soybeans (and other continuous crops) are usually associated with increased disease presence as well as pests.

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Practices for big corn yields highlighted at OABA Industry Conference

By Matt Reese

The Ohio AgriBusiness Association Industry Conference always features a diverse and interesting program and this year is certainly no exception. Thursday’s topics included an overview of the state’s livestock industries, a look at global grain markets, and regulations, just to name a few. Among the more popular presentations was the topic of striving for high corn yields with Fred Below from the University of Illinois.

“I talked about my seven wonders of the corn yield world. These are the management factors that each impact yield. This is not rocket science. I talked about how important weather is and how weather interacts with nitrogen, about getting the hybrid selection right, managing the rotation, and plant population. The plant population is a big factor that has changed and has to change in order to grow higher yields — narrower rows and more plants. Finally I try to put it together in a systems approach.

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How many soybean acres do we need in 2019?

By Todd Hubbs, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics University of Illinois

We have reached the time of the year where speculation about acreage for the 2019 crops begins in earnest. While the number of acres planted to soybeans appears set to decrease, current projections indicate an intention to plant significantly more acres than necessary to reach breakeven prices in Illinois under current consumption and stock level forecasts.

Projections by industry analysts place 2019 soybean planted acreage in a range from 84.5 to 86.5 million acres. A reduction in soybean acreage from the 89.1 million acres planted in 2018 seems probable.

We currently project soybean planted acreage at 85.7 million acres. An analysis of the number of soybean acres necessary in 2019 to produce a 2019-20 marketing year price for soybeans near the cost of production may be revealing. This analysis uses a 2019 crop budget on high productivity farmland for soybeans following corn in central Illinois.

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Tri-state fertilizer recommendations changing

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

Things are changing for the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations for agronomic crops. We are giving these updates this winter in advance of the publication update likely to come at the end of winter, and maybe too late to put in your plans for 2019. First the work. Steve Culman our OSU soil fertility specialist coordinated much of it:

  • From 2014 to 2017, over 300 on-farm strip trials were conducted across Ohio.
  • Yield responses to P and K fertilizer in soils at or above the current maintenance range were very rare.
  • Long-term data shows that when Ohio soils are in the current maintenance range, they supply sufficient P and K to meet corn and soybean demand for many growing seasons without yearly fertilization.
  • Recommended corn N rates were updated and are based on maximizing farmer profitability, not maximizing yields (http://go.osu.edu/corn-n-rate).
  • Corn, soybean and wheat today yield more grain with less nutrients.
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OSU winter agronomy meetings

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension

We on the Agronomic Crops Team provide programs of interest to corn, soybean and wheat growers across Ohio. See our calendar throughout the winter: http://agcrops.osu.edu/events.

  • Those who must renew their Pesticide Applicator License or Fertilizer Applicator Certification can check the website for dates in your area and to register: http://pested.osu.edu/
  • Still need to get certified to apply fertilizer? You must attend a 3-hour program from Ohio State University Extension; to find a meeting for a 3-hour Fertilizer Certification training: http://NutrientEducation.osu.edu.
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2019 planter pre-season notes

By John Fulton and Jenna Lee

Spring planting is right around the corner and one wants to ensure the planter is at peak performance. Considering current seed costs and tight margins, getting seed placed right during planting is critical. Not getting it right at planting can impact yield, with university research on corn indicating:

  • 10 bushel per acre gain can be achieved from good seed-to-soil contact.
  • Uneven emergence can have a 5% to 9% yield impact.
  • Seeding depth and downforce management are critical for optimization of planter performance.

The goal of the planter should be to:

  1. Maintain the target seeding rate within a field,
  2. Obtain uniform seed spacing, and
  3. Achieve adequate and uniform planting depth without compaction, supporting immediate germination and uniform emergence.

The following provides a checklist for the planter and technology to consider before spring planting, along with suggestions for evaluating stands once crops are emerged.

Planter checklist

  1. Check all chains and sprockets, replace as needed.
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eFields Report a must-see for farmers in Ohio

The 2018 eFields Report has been released by the Ohio State University. The 200 page book contains on-farm research data from the last year collected from 95 research locations spread across 25 counties.

“The eFields report is documentation of all of the on-farm research across the state of Ohio being done by extension educators,”said Sam Custer, Darke County Extension Educator.

Ohio Ag Net’s Bart Johnson sat down with Custer to discuss highlights of the report and how you can see it for yourself.

Click here for the online copy.

There are reginal eFields meetings coming up around the state:

  • Southwest: February 13, 2019 – 9:00 am | Clinton County Extension Office: 111 South Nelson Ave. #2, Wilmington OH 45177
  • Northwest: February 20, 2019; 9:00 am – Noon | Robert Fulton Ag Center: 8770 OH-108, Wauseon, OH 43567
  • East: February 27, 2019; 4:30 pm – 8:30pm | RG Drage Career Conference Center: 2800 Richville Dr.
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2018 Ohio Crop Tour follow-up

By Matt Reese

After an almost ideal growing season for some and not so much for others, we were not sure quite what to expect on the 2018 I-75/I-71 Ohio Crop Tour in mid-August.

There were certainly some examples that showed up in fields on the 2018 I-75/I-71 Ohio Crop Tour displaying evidence of some challenging conditions, but for the most part what we found was a crop that might just meet what USDA has suggested, a record Ohio corn and soybean crop. The 2018 Ohio Crop Tour was sponsored by AgroLiquid.

In January, prior to the final yield report that has been delayed by the government shutdown, the U.S. Department of Agriculture was predicting an average yield in Ohio of 190 bushels. In August, the number we came up with for our tour average was 186.7 bushels. At the time, we thought that yield may be on the high side because there was a fair portion of the crop that had a long way to go yet in mid-August and there were still plenty of chances left in the season for yield reductions.

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Northern Ohio Crops Day

By Allen Gahler, Ohio State University Extension

Northern Ohio Crops Day, held annually on the first Thursday in February at Ole Zim’s Wagon Shed near Gibsonburg, Ohio in Sandusky County is all set for another outstanding program that the progressive grain crop producer will not want to miss.

Thursday, Feb. 7, 2019, the program will begin at 8:30 a.m. with a look at fungicide use in alfalfa led by Jason Hartschuh, Ag Educator in Crawford County. Alan Sundermeier, Ag Educator in Wood County will then provide an update on the status of palmer amaranth and waterhemp in the area along with management strategies. A discussion on temperature inversions and their impact on our spray practices will be led by OSU Extension climatologist Aaron Wilson.

Greg Labarge, OSU Extension agronomic systems specialist will give an update on where we’ve been and what we’ve learned on Lake Erie, phosphorous, and water quality, and Andrew Kleinschmidt from OSU’s Ag Engineering department will present research findings on high speed planters and pinch row mitigation.

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Ohio Fall Weed survey follow-up

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

So I got some calls after our Extension Fall Weed Survey — if these are the problem weeds, then how do you deal with them?

It is becoming apparent that with the move to herbicide tolerant crops, we aren’t necessarily getting rid of all of our weeds — only 30% of our fields are weed free. Giant ragweed moved back into first place for worst weed, seen in 34% of fields overtaking marestail seen in 30% of fields. And then there is the pigweed problem — waterhemp appeared frequently, so did redroot pigweed and then there are the concerns about Palmer amaranth and its escape across Ohio.

 

Weed2018 Ohio rank% of fields
Giant Ragweed134
Marestail230
Waterhemp610
Redroot pigweed105

 

So how do we deal with problem weeds? I look in the back of the Ohio, Indiana and Illinois Weed Control Guide — all of these weeds are there, so it’s not just a problem for you but these appear to be problems across the eastern Corn Belt as well.

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Plenty of market news to ponder

By Doug Tenney, Leist Mercantile

There is certainly plenty of news to mull over. Government shutdown, trade talks, USDA reports, snow, cold, South American weather, and charts are among the topics clamoring for significant attention.

The partial government shutdown is approaching 30 days at this writing. The partial shutdown is affecting farmers in numerous ways this winter. It means local FSA offices are closed and unable to process loan payments along with the Market Facilitation Program (MFP). Those soybean payments of $1.65 per bushel are being welcomed profusely across Ohio and the U.S. While we are now well past the Jan. 15 original deadline, USDA had already announced that deadline would be extended the number of days FSA offices were closed by the partial government shutdown. The FSA offices across the country were last open on Dec. 28 with some Ohio offices open Jan. 17, 18, and 22. Numerous conversations with producers indicate many are still waiting on their second round of MFP payments.

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No-Till news

By Randall Reeder, P.E., Extension Agricultural Engineer (retired)

The December Ohio No-Till Council conference in Plain City featured 14 speakers on diverse topics. It was a beautiful day, the sun shining, a rare occurrence in rainy 2018. The ground was reasonably dry so attendance was down because so many farmers were home harvesting corn and soybeans.

For those who missed it, here are a few highlights, provided by Vinayak Shedekar, an OSU Ag. Engineer working on water quality. Harold Watters, OSU Extension, discussed the new Tri-State Fertilizer recommendations, which include lower rates for Phosphorus. (Note: at the Conservation Tillage Conference a concurrent session on March 6 will go in depth on the revised recommendations.)

Jim Hoorman, Soil Health Specialist, NRCS, disclosed that for every ton of soybeans produced the average farm loses one to two tons of topsoil. Four principles of soil health are: minimize soil disturbance, maximize cover, maximize live roots, and maximize biodiversity.

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Winter wheat management: What are tillers and how do they contribute to yield?

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, product manager for Seed Consultants, Inc.

In the coming months as the weather warms, up winter wheat will break dormancy and will begin to green up. After a period of about 2 weeks producers should evaluate their stand in order to make management decisions for their wheat crop. Part of this evaluation includes counting tillers to determine if there is an adequate stand for achieving high yields. According an article in a 2014 C.O.R.N. Newsletter written by Laura Lindsey, Ed Lentz, Pierce Paul, “Yield potential is reduced if tiller numbers fall below 25 per square foot after green up.”

So, what is a tiller? And how should they be counted? Tillers are additional stems that develop off of the main shoot of the plant. Primary tillers form in the axils of the first four or more true leaves of the main stem. Secondary tillers may develop from the base of primary tillers if conditions favor tiller development.

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Extensive spread of corn toxin could affect 2019 crop

A wetter than normal summer and fall in Ohio led to the worst spread of a toxin on corn in at least a decade, according to a grain disease expert with The Ohio State University.

And next year’s crop may be at risk as well. The fungus that produces the toxin can survive the winter, particularly if stalks or other plant material from the 2018 corn crop are left on the surface of the soil, said Pierce Paul, an Ohio State University Extension specialist in corn and small grain diseases.

The extent of vomitoxin across Ohio and the rest of the Corn Belt led some farmers to receive a lower price for their crop, Paul said.

High moisture levels spur the spread of vomitoxin, which can cause people and animals to get sick. The rainy summer and fall in the state and across the Midwest not only left more moisture in fields, but also delayed some farmers from harvesting.

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