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Moldy corn and upright ears

By Peter Thomison, Pierce Paul, Bruce Clevenger, and Glen Arnold, Ohio State University Extension

 

Moldy ear problems have been reported in northwest Ohio, especially in certain corn hybrids planted late after June 1. The moldy ears have been attributed to Diplodia and Gibberella fungal infection. Vomitoxins (associated with Gibberalla) have been found in some of the later planted, wetter corn (>25%). The few preliminary reports received to date suggest that vomitoxin levels are lower and vomitoxin problems far more limited in scope than in 2009. This is largely because, compared to 2009, conditions this year were relatively dry during the first few weeks after pollination, which restricted the development of Gibberella ear rot.

Although some level of infection may have occurred at silking, conditions during early grain-fill were in general not favorable for widespread ear rot development and mycotoxin contamination, except in some of the later planted fields. As was the case in 2009, molds have often been associated with upright ears.… Continue reading

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Bt choices expanding, resistance developing

Isolated findings of resistant rootworms in Iowa emphasize that planting a refuge is more critical than ever for maintaining the durability of Bt corn, said Christian Krupke, a Purdue Extension entomologist.

Bt corn does not kill all larva that feed upon it, and very slight feeding damage from corn rootworm is typical, said Christian Krupke. But after researchers at Iowa State University were alerted to high levels of feeding damage in some fields, they began to test Bt corn hybrids that expressed the Cry3B1 toxin. They found that rootworms from those fields were able to survive exposure in the lab. Currently, other Bt toxins appear to be effective against the pest.

The most important thing corn growers can do in the future is follow refuge guidelines, Krupke said. Refuges develop a population of susceptible adults and allow mating between those and any potentially resistant beetles that emerge from Bt plants. Compliance with refuge recommendations has declined in recent years.… Continue reading

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Soybean disease update for 2011

By Anne Dorrance, Ron Hammond and Feng Qu, Ohio State University Extension

 

This has been one of the most challenging years on record for getting this crop in the ground and getting it harvested. Now we are trying to make sense of all the research data. In the meantime, let’s recap some things that actually did not happen and some that did.

Soybean rust

There really has not been much to say much about this pathogen this year. Inoculum levels were very, very low in the spring thanks to a very hard winter last year in the southern U.S. It was hot and dry early and it took a long time for this disease to get started. My colleagues in the South who search for soybean rust were talking about the Mississippi river spilling over its banks into fields that were totally suffering from drought — more evidence of a very strange year.… Continue reading

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SURE signup started

Steven Maurer, State Executive Director for Ohio’s Farm Service Agency (FSA), would like to remind producers that FSA is currently accepting enrollment for the 2010 crop losses under the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments (SURE) program that began Monday, Nov. 14, 2011.

Eligible producers who suffered losses during the 2010 crop year are encouraged to visit their local FSA office to learn more about the SURE program. FSA also has SURE information available at www.fsa.usda.gov/sure.… Continue reading

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SCI winter agronomy meetings

Seed Consultants, Inc. will be conducting winter agronomy meetings this January and February at select locations across the Eastern Corn Belt. Topics that will be covered include: lessons learned from the 2011 growing season; tips for a successful 2012 corn, soybean and wheat crop; how to interpret plot data; tips on improving planting and harvesting techniques; and much, much more. Please register in advance to attend one of these very informative agronomy meetings by calling 800-708-2676 or by going online at www.seedconsultants.com.… Continue reading

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Genetics overcame challenges in 2011

Weather conditions at planting and harvest seemed to plague farmers in 2011. Despite frustrating meteorological developments, Ohio State University experts say continuous improvements in corn genetics and traits allowed producers to record impressive yields this year.

“Seed companies are screening hybrids and genetics on such a huge scale now that they are able to sort, screen and filter genetics that won’t work under these conditions,” said Peter Thomison, OSU Extension corn specialist and professor of horticulture and crop science. “The plant can now tolerate a number of stress conditions and still have phenomenal yield potential.”

Thomison said that university experts across the country make significant contributions to the continuing development of crop genetics, and credited a competitive private industry for the strength of their offerings to farmers in recent years. In fact, he noted that the partnership between work done throughout the Land-grant system and in private industry has largely fueled the productivity of American agriculture over the past century.… Continue reading

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Ohio Grain Farmers Symposium

The third annual Ohio Grain Farmers Symposium (OGFS) will be December 15 at the Roberts Centre and Holiday Inn in Wilmington, Ohio. Grain farmers throughout the state will have the opportunity to hear about the latest agricultural issues impacting their operations.

Registration begins at 7 a.m. and the early bird marketing report will begin at 8:30 a.m.

Topics discussed during the general session include a Washington outlook, overview of water-quality issues and consumer perceptions about farming. Attendees will also have a variety of breakout sessions to choose from with topics such as shale-gas issues in Ohio, planning for the 2012 markets and preparing for water-quality regulations.

Additionally, the annual OGFS trade show will have more than 30 companies that serve the agricultural industry on-site to speak with participants about their services.

The OGFS is held in conjunction with the annual meetings of the Ohio Corn & Wheat Growers Association (OCWGA) and the Ohio Soybean Association (OSA).… Continue reading

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World grain production is down

World grain production fell, exacerbating a global food situation already plagued by rising prices, according to new research published by the Worldwatch Institute, an independent research organization based in Washington, D.C. that works on energy, resource, and environmental issues. Despite record rice and corn yields around the world, global wheat production dropped substantially enough to bring total grain output to just below 2008 levels.

Corn, wheat, and rice provide nearly two-thirds of the global human diet and serve as critical inputs for both animal feed and industrial products. The significance of these crops guarantees that a decline in production will produce ripple effects throughout the global economy, particularly as increased food prices continue to take a toll on the world’s neediest populations. Overall, rice and wheat production have tripled since the 1960s, and corn production has quadrupled, despite global acreage of these crops increasing by only 35%.

“Production increased worldwide, but there was greater reliance on irrigation, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides—-all of which take resources, can be costly, and may cause substantial environmental degradation,” said contributing researcher Richard Weil.… Continue reading

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Ohio Soybean Council Annual Banquet

Dale Minyo emceed the Ohio Soybean Council’s Annual Banquet and also had the opportunity to talk with Dr. Jeffrey Wadsworth. Wadsworth is the CEO at Battelle and accepted the Outstanding Achievement Award at the event. Others recognized for their service on the OSC Board at the event were Chairman Allen Armstrong (Clark County) and Dan Schwartz (Trumbull County). Jeff Wuebker (Darke County) was recognized for his service as President of the Ohio Soybean Association Board.

Listen to the interview from the soy banquet.soy banquet

 

 

 

 … Continue reading

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Corn and soybean demand and acreage prospects for 2012

Corn and soybean prices have declined sharply since the release of the USDA’s November Crop Production report that contained smaller forecasts of the size of the 2011 harvest for both crops. In addition, the historically strong corn basis has begun to weaken in many markets, said University of Illinois agricultural economist Darrel Good.

“The recent price behavior suggests that the market believes that the combination of very high prices in the late summer and early fall and weaker demand prospects have been sufficient to ration the relatively small crops,” Good said.

Weaker export demand prospects stem from a combination of increased competition from other exporters and concerns about world economic and financial conditions. For corn, the competition is from the large corn and wheat crops in 2011 whereas soybean export demand is being influenced by prospects of another large South American harvest in 2012, he said.

“While world financial conditions are deteriorating, the impact on world grain consumption may be overstated.… Continue reading

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Ohio's Crop Progress Report – November 28th

OHIO CROP WEATHER HIGHLIGHTS

Weather data was not available for release. Weather data will return in the release next week.

Reporters rated 1.9 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, November 25, 2011. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 0 percent short, 31 percent adequate, and 69 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS WEEK ENDING SUNDAY NOVEMBER 27th 2011

Farmers were able to harvest some corn. However, wet and muddy conditions hampered the harvest.

As of Sunday November 27th, corn harvested for grain was 76 percent complete, compared to 100 percent last year and 94 percent for the five-year average. Soybeans harvested were rated at 95 percent, 5 percentage points behind both last year and the five-year average. Emerged winter wheat was rated at 90 percent, compared to 100 percent last year and 96 percent for the five-year average.

CROP AND LIVESTOCK CONDITION

Livestock were 86 percent in fair-to-good condition, up three percent from last week.… Continue reading

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Ohio’s Crop Progress Report – November 28th

OHIO CROP WEATHER HIGHLIGHTS

Weather data was not available for release. Weather data will return in the release next week.

Reporters rated 1.9 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, November 25, 2011. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 0 percent short, 31 percent adequate, and 69 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS WEEK ENDING SUNDAY NOVEMBER 27th 2011

Farmers were able to harvest some corn. However, wet and muddy conditions hampered the harvest.

As of Sunday November 27th, corn harvested for grain was 76 percent complete, compared to 100 percent last year and 94 percent for the five-year average. Soybeans harvested were rated at 95 percent, 5 percentage points behind both last year and the five-year average. Emerged winter wheat was rated at 90 percent, compared to 100 percent last year and 96 percent for the five-year average.

CROP AND LIVESTOCK CONDITION

Livestock were 86 percent in fair-to-good condition, up three percent from last week.… Continue reading

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USDA to lower crop insurance premiums

Ohio saw some of the biggest decreases in the nation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Risk Management Agency (RMA) announcement that it will update the methodology to set crop insurance premiums, leading to lower insurance premium rates for many corn and soybean producers in the 2012 crop year. The rate adjustment is based on findings of an independent study and peer review process.

The study is part of RMA’s ongoing effort to improve the methodology of determining premium rates for crop insurance. Ohio’s average reduction in soybean insurance premiums will be 13% and it will be and 11% reduction in insurance premiums for corn. Both decreases are significantly larger than the national averages.

“We are improving the formulation of our rate-making methodology, and are moving to establish the most fair and appropriate premium rates for today’s producers,” said William J. Murphy, RMA Administrator. “On average, these new rates should reduce corn farmers’ rates by 7% and soybean farmers’ by 9%.… Continue reading

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2011 tough year for hybrid decisions

It only makes sense to base the selection of hybrids and varieties for next year on their performance this year, right? Maybe not.

Ohio State University Extension corn specialist Peter Thomison said the late planting, hot summer, soggy September and delayed harvest combined to make 2011 an odd year.

“This year it as important as ever to choose hybrids that yield consistency across environments,” he said. “Hybrids will perform differently, based on region, soils and environmental conditions, and growers should not rely solely on one hybrid characteristic or transgenic traits to make their product selection.”

This year’s crop experienced water stress on both ends of the spectrum with flooding in the early spring and drought in late summer, which may not lead to a balanced view of hybrid performance, said Bob Nielsen, Purdue University Extension corn specialist.

Nielsen said the top criterion for hybrid selection always is yield potential, but consistency of yield also is important.… Continue reading

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Plant genebank to be more user-friendly

A free, user-friendly online database system for managing the world’s plant genebanks will be launched this year, thanks to a partnership between the USDA and the Consultive Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

The international project involves updating a germplasm management system called the Germplasm Resources Infromation Network (GRIN), originally developed by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service. The updated system, called GRIN-Global will be initiated at CGIAR centers this month, and in the United States in 2012.

ARS uses GRIN to manage agricultural data on plant genetic resources at various genebank sites. Using GRIN-Global, other nations will have the ability to document their plant germplasm and deliver that information worldwide, according to Peter Cyr, information technology specialist and project leader at the ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa. Each genebank will have its own local version of the GRIN-Global software, which is capable of supporting different languages.

Curators can customize the system to fit their specific needs and keep track of genetic material origins, traits and properties.… Continue reading

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Pesticide applicator alert

By Harold Watters, OSU Extension

Over the next three to four weeks you will be getting information on how to renew your Ohio Pesticide Applicator’s License. The letter from the Ohio Department of Agriculture will include information on how and where to recertify this winter. With increased postage cost, reduced county Extension funding and loss of personnel, we in Extension still want to help you through the education process for your recertification. So read the letter from our Pesticide Safety and Education office, find the date and location to participate in for renewal and reserve your spot with your friendly neighborhood Extension office.

Most of us applicators across Ohio now have categories 1, 2, 6 and CORE. Those cover Field Crops (1), Forage Crops and Livestock (2), Fumigation (6) and CORE. This reduced number of categories due to changes that were set in place last year.

  • Category 1 now includes seed treatment, stored grain and non-crop in addition to weeds, insects and disease control for corn (all corn including sweet), soybeans and wheat.
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Ohio No-Till Conference coming up

Experts from Ohio State University Extension, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Ohio No-Till Council will discuss the critical importance of managing phosphorous and other nutrients through conservation tillage practices at the annual Ohio No-Till Conference, Dec. 6 in Plain City.

“This conference is a meeting of the minds of many people who do no-till,” said Jim Hoorman, assistant professor studying cover crops and water quality issues, and an Extension educator in Mercer County. “There is a great deal of information available about no-till and current agricultural issues covered at this event.”

Hoorman will lead several sessions at the conference, held at the Der Dutchman restaurant from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. His sessions will focus on his two key areas of expertise.

The focus on water quality, given ongoing discussions across Ohio about nutrient management issues around Lake Erie and Grand Lake St. Marys, is perhaps the biggest topic at this year’s gathering.… Continue reading

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Corn yields overcame late start

By Matt Reese
Fortunately, general yields for corn and soybeans have been pleasantly surprising after the late start in 2011, said Peter Thomison, Ohio State University Extension corn specialist.
“The yields are a testimony to the fact that farmers are selecting good genetics. Well over 50% of the yield improvements we’re seeing on a yearly basis are due to genetics and agronomic practices in tandem. Obviously we’re pushing plant populations in corn. Growers did their homework and made good decisions to spread their risks by going with some earlier hybrids that still had high yield potential,” Thomison said. “Even in Western Ohio that had far from ideal rainfall distribution, we still managed to harvest very respectable yields in our corn performance test planted in late May. That was not always true across the landscape with different soil types, but I think even in the driest areas there were quite a few growers expecting lower yields than what they ended up with.… Continue reading

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Herbicide may affect plants thought to be resistant

Purdue University researchers have discovered a fine-tuning mechanism involved in plant root growth that has them questioning whether a popular herbicide may have unintended consequences, causing some plants to need more water or nutrients.

Angus Murphy, a professor of horticulture, and Wendy Peer, an assistant professor of horticulture, study the movement of auxin, a plant hormone essential for plant development. They showed that ABCB4, a protein responsible for moving auxin into cells, also removes the hormone when too much has accumulated.

“We knew that the protein took auxin up, but found that it switched to removing auxin when a threshold is reached,” said Murphy, whose findings appeared in the early online version of The Plant Journal. “It starts transporting the hormones out.”

That fine-tuning mechanism is integral to proper development of plant root hairs, which extend from the main plant root and are where most water and minerals enter.

“The root hairs are doing all the heavy lifting for bringing the water into the plant,” Peer said.

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Ohio’s Crop Progress Report – November 21st

OHIO CROP WEATHER HIGHLIGHTS

The average temperature for the State was 46.3 degrees, 4.8 degrees above normal for the week ending Sunday, November 20, 2011. Precipitation averaged 1.51 inches, 0.86 inches above normal. There were 18 modified growing degree days, 5 days above normal.

Reporters rated 3.1 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, November 18, 2011. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 0 percent short, 48 percent adequate, and 52 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS WEEK ENDING SUNDAY NOVEMBER 21st 2011

Farmers were harvesting corn and soybeans and planting winter wheat, although wet and muddy fields slowed the process. They were also doing fall tillage.

As of Sunday November 21st, corn harvested for grain was 69 percent complete, compared to 100 percent last year and 88 percent for the five-year average. Soybeans harvested were rated at 93 percent, 7 percentage points behind last year and 6 points behind the five-year average.… Continue reading

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