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Identifying emergence problems in corn

By Peter Thomison, Pierce Paul and Ron Hammond, Ohio State University Extension

 

Corn planting is nearing completion in Ohio. Across the state and within localized areas, corn is at a range of growth stages. Some of the corn planted in April is showing up to 4 leaf collars but in later planted fields, corn is still emerging.

Troubleshooting emergence problems early is critical in identifying solutions and developing successful replant plans, if needed. Here’s a list of a few common things to look for if you encounter an emergence problem in corn this spring (some of this information has been adapted from a newsletter article written by Greg Roth at Penn State several years ago).

• No seed present. May be due to planter malfunction or bird or rodent damage. The latter often will leave some evidence such as digging or seed or plant parts on the ground.

• Coleoptile (shoot) unfurled, leafing-out underground.… Continue reading

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Now is a good time to evaluate plant stands

Jeff Rectenwald
, CCA, Territory Agronomist for Asgrow/Dekalb

Now is a good time to be evaluating corn and soybean stands for plant populations, inter-row plant spacing, and seedling plant health. It takes about 100 growing degree units (GDU) before corn will emerge. While in the field, be on the lookout for black cutworms and bean leaf beetles.

When scouting fields, I like to take a piece of rope 17.4 inches long for determining corn plant populations, a hoop 28.2 inches in diameter for soybean populations, a tile spade for quickly digging plants out of the row, and a bucket with a lid and some water for washing off roots and looking for disease. These are just a few of the scouting tools that can be used for diagnostics in the field.

Evaluating plant emergence and viable plant population shortly after emergence is important for future management decisions. If population is greatly reduced, replanting may be justified and should be accomplished as soon as possible.… Continue reading

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U.S. agriculture hails U.S.-Colombia FTA implementation

In a huge victory for U.S. farmers, the United States and Colombia officially implemented on Tuesday a free trade agreement (FTA) first signed in 2006.

The pact immediately ends a significant tariff disadvantage U.S. farmers have faced with their agricultural products. Wheat growers are among the benefactors of the agreement.

“This is a very good day for wheat farmers,” said Randy Suess, a wheat farmer from Colfax, Wash., and chairman of U.S. Wheat Associates (USW). “The tariff situation has basically forced our largest customer, historically, in South America to buy more wheat from Canada and Argentina. Now our customers in Colombia will not have to pay the tariff, and we can compete equally on the basis of quality, supply and service.”

Implementing this FTA is particularly important to U.S. wheat farmers, who rely on exports to market about half of their crops each year. In marketing year 2010/2011, Colombia imported from Gulf and Pacific Northwest tributaries about 800,000 metric tons of U.S.… Continue reading

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Ethanol reduced gas prices by more than $1 in 2011

America’s growing use of domestically-produced ethanol reduced wholesale gasoline prices by an average of $1.09 per gallon in
2011, according to updated research conducted by economics professors at the University of Wisconsin and Iowa State University.  The 2011 results, which are up from an average impact of $0.89 per gallon in 2010, were released today by the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD).

The new analysis, an update to a 2009 peer-reviewed paper published in Energy Policy by professors Dermot Hayes and Xiaodong Du,  also found gasoline prices have been reduced by an average of $0.29 per gallon, or 17%, from 2000-2011 thanks to  the growing use of ethanol.

“Growth in US ethanol production has added significantly to the volume of fuel available in the US,” said Professor Hayes. “It is as if the
US oil refining industry had found a way to extract 10% more gasoline from a barrel of oil.… Continue reading

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Scout for slugs now

By Ron Hammond and Andy Michel, Ohio State University entomologists

We are receiving numerous reports right now about slugs causing significant feeding injury requiring treatment with baits. These reports are 2-4 weeks early compared with most years, and is a result of the warmer winter and March. Slugs have attached out earlier than normal and have reached a size that causes noticeable feeding injury much sooner.

Corn and soybean present two different concerns. With corn’s growing point being below the soil for a few weeks, most of the feeding above ground will be to growing leaves that will be replaced, and not on the growing tip that would kill the plant. Because of continued growth of corn that will probably occur, there is some leeway in terms of the time required to make the treatment if needed. But keep in mind that the corn is still relatively much smaller than when feeding normally would be occurring, and thus, presenting a much more serious situation.… Continue reading

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Ohio's Crop Progress – May 14th, 2012

WEEK ENDING SUNDAY May 13th, 2012

The average temperature for the State was 60.1 degrees, 1.5 degrees above normal for the week ending Sunday, May 13, 2012. Precipitation averaged 1.23 inches, 0.43 inches above normal. There were 83 modified growing degree days, 4 days above normal. Reporters rated 2.7 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, May 11, 2012. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 4 percent short, 65 percent adequate, and 31 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS

Temperatures and precipitation for the State were higher than normal. Most of the precipitation came in variable, yet strong rains.
Reporters still indicated that field conditions were still slightly dryer than usual for this time of year. Warmer temperatures this year have caused an increase in insect pressure. Field activities for the week included hauling grain, green chopping forage, applying nitrogen to corn, fungicide to wheat, and spraying herbicides.… Continue reading

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Ohio’s Crop Progress – May 14th, 2012

WEEK ENDING SUNDAY May 13th, 2012

The average temperature for the State was 60.1 degrees, 1.5 degrees above normal for the week ending Sunday, May 13, 2012. Precipitation averaged 1.23 inches, 0.43 inches above normal. There were 83 modified growing degree days, 4 days above normal. Reporters rated 2.7 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, May 11, 2012. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 4 percent short, 65 percent adequate, and 31 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS

Temperatures and precipitation for the State were higher than normal. Most of the precipitation came in variable, yet strong rains.
Reporters still indicated that field conditions were still slightly dryer than usual for this time of year. Warmer temperatures this year have caused an increase in insect pressure. Field activities for the week included hauling grain, green chopping forage, applying nitrogen to corn, fungicide to wheat, and spraying herbicides.… Continue reading

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The direction of the corn market still unfolding

The USDA’s projections of U.S. and world corn and feed grain supply-and-demand conditions presented in the May World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report set the benchmark by which the corn market will judge unfolding events. According to a University of Illinois agricultural economist, those events are continually unfolding, with some of the more important ones to be revealed this summer. “Among the factors to be revealed over the next few months, two of the most important are the rate of domestic feed and residual use and the prospective size of the 2012 U.S. crop,” said Darrel Good. “Feed and residual use of corn during the current marketing year is projected at 4.55 billion bushels. Use during the first half of the year, as implied by the quarterly stocks estimates, totaled 3.39 billion bushels. To reach the projection for the year, use during the last half of the year will need to total 1.16 billion bushels, about the same as was consumed during the same period last year.… Continue reading

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Beck’s Hybrids adds Ohio location

Beck’s Hybrids  announced a land purchase near London, Ohio. Located east of Farm Science Review, along I-70 and U.S. 40, the new property is Beck’s first permanent location in Ohio.

“This investment is a reflection of our commitment to Ohio farmers and it will provide them with research and quality products that perform in their field environments, agronomic support and better service,” said Sonny Beck, president of Beck’s Hybrids. “The location is ideal, providing great road access which allows Beck’s to serve customer needs throughout western Ohio.”

Plans for the new property include conducting Practical Farm Research (PFR) studies, hosting farmers for field day events, building a seed distribution facility, and providing additional agronomic support for Ohio farmers.

Beck’s PFR studies are designed with the farmer in mind. Each year, Beck’s conducts research to learn how different management practices and new technologies perform in field environments. Ohio farmers can expect to tour the PFR studies by the 2013 growing season.… Continue reading

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Early stages in the life of a corn plant

Early stages in the life of a corn plant

By Dave Nanda, 
Director of Genetics and Technology for Seed Consultants, Inc.

Knowing the growth stages of corn permits us to plan for field operations.

• Most hybrids produce 18 to 22 leaves based on their relative maturity; earlier hybrids produce fewer leaves. How do we measure the stage of maturity of our corn crop?

• The most common method of measuring corn maturity is the “collar method” in which we count the number of leaves with collars which develop when the leaf partially unclasps from the stem.

• First sign of corn emergence is the appearance of a tip that breaks through the ground. We call it the “coleoptile.” It pierces through the ground like a spear and starts to elongate.

• A leaf-collar is the light colored band at the base of the leaf. It includes the first emerging leaf that looks like a thumb.… Continue reading

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Soybeans please

The latest report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that U.S. soybean supplies could be at their lowest level relative to use since 1965 following the 2012-2013 cropping year.

The report, released Thursday (May 10), includes the USDA’s first estimates of crop size and use for the marketing year, but uses acreage data from an early-March survey of farmers’ planting intentions. Much has happened since the survey was conducted, however, and that could have changed farmers’ acreage intentions.

“The first change is the size of the South American crops, where expected corn production increased and expected soybean production decreased sharply,” said Chris Hurt, Purdue Extension agricultural economist. “Primarily as a result of changes in South America, anticipated world corn production has grown by 250 million bushels and anticipated world soybean production has dropped by about 575 million bushels since the USDA’s intentions survey was completed.”

Another big change in the markets has been China’s aggressive purchasing of corn and, even more, soybeans.… Continue reading

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More resistant weeds popping up around the country

Herbicide-resistant waterhemp populations will challenge weed management practices and practitioners during the 2012 growing season.

University of Illinois associate professor of weed science Aaron Hager said that the increasing occurrence of waterhemp populations that possess resistance to herbicides spanning more than one site of action further complicates management because the efficacy of multiple herbicides is compromised.

Last year, University of Illinois weed science specialists published the results of a herbicide-resistance screening program for waterhemp samples submitted during the 2010 growing season. The program uses molecular biology techniques to detect herbicide-resistance traits (glyphosate, PPO inhibitors, and ALS inhibitors) in waterhemp. In 2011, a total of 408 plants from 97 different fields suspected of having glyphosate-resistant waterhemp were submitted.

Hager explained that distinguishing between multiple herbicide resistance at the field and individual plant levels is important and can impact management options.

“Field-level multiple resistance is when resistance to herbicides from more than one site of action is present within the population growing in any particular field,” he said.… Continue reading

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USDA serves up corn surprise

By Doug Tenney, Leist Mercantile

In what was a major surprise, USDA moved old crop ending stocks higher by 50 million bushels to 851 million bushels in today’s reports. Some say this comes from ideas that new corn will be used to satisfy old crop corn demand. Old soybean ending stocks were lowered 40 million bushels to 210 million bushels. Crush is up 15 million bushels and exports up 25 million bushels.

Corn is being called 10-15 cents lower. Some calls have old corn down 30 cents, new corn down 10 cents. Soybeans are called 20-30 cents higher.

New corn ending stocks were pegged at a whopping 1.881 billion bushels with a yield of 166 bushels. In the days preceding this report, traders were looking at the 2012 corn yield anywhere from 160-170 bushels. Most of the trade was using 164 to 167 bushels, so the 166 is not really a huge surprise.… Continue reading

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What are expectations for the corn-marketing year?

The steady decline in prices over the past few months reflects, in part, expectations for a large 2012 U.S. corn crop and some rebuilding of inventories during the year ahead, according to University of Illinois agricultural economist Darrel Good.

Good reported that the December 2012 corn futures reached a high of $6.735 on Aug. 31, 2011, declined to a low of

$5.23 on March 30, 2012, and are now trading near $5.40.

“Prospects for a large increase in corn acreage support expectations for more abundant stocks next year, but opinions about the magnitude of the build-up vary considerably,” Good said. “Since the end of the 2012-13 marketing year is 16 months away, uncertainty will abound for several more months.”

Expectations for the 2012-13 marketing year begin with the likely size of the 2012 crop, Good said. Producers have reported intentions to plant 95.864 million acres of corn, 3.943 million more than planted in 2011, pointing to acreage harvested for grain of about 88.8 million acres.… Continue reading

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Ponding effects on corn

By Peter Thomison, Ohio State University Extension corn specialist

Rainfall was mixed across Ohio during the past week. Although some areas of NW Ohio missed any appreciable rainfall, some fields in central and SW Ohio received up to 4 and 5 inches of rain resulting in localized ponding and flooding of corn and soybean fields. If the ponding and flooding was of a limited duration, i.e. the water drained off quickly within a few hours, the injury resulting from the saturated soil conditions should be minimal.

The extent to which ponding injures corn is determined by several factors including: (1) plant stage of development when ponding occurs, (2) duration of ponding and (3) air/soil temperatures. Prior to the 6-leaf collar stage (as measured by visible leaf collars) or when the growing point is at or below the soil surface, corn can usually survive only 2 to 4 days of flooded conditions.… Continue reading

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Pioneer Hi-Bred Launches Replant Calculator

A new tool with will help producers decide whether to keep their current stand or replant when crops have been impacted by weather, pests or other issues. Pioneer Hi-Bred is offering a replant calculator on Mobile Pioneer dot com. It takes into account the original date for planting, original stand target and resulting plant population and the possible replanting date. Growers are then asked to consider their own likely replanting seed and input costs. The calculator will provide estimates associated with the current stand and replant stand.

The calculator is based on a long-standing chart developed by Dr. Emerson Nafziger of the University of Illinois. It illustrates the effects of planting date and plant population on grain yield for the Corn Belt. It also accounts for the current shift to higher populations as suggested by Pioneer research and data.

The replant calculator is part of a suite of tools available on www.pioneer.com and Mobile Pioneer dot com.… Continue reading

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Growing organically suits Banzhaf Garten just fine

By Connie Lechleitner, OCJ field reporter

For Dave Benchoff, of Ashland, what began as a backyard garden has grown into a full-time business with Banzhaf Garten Organic Farm.

“We weren’t always health conscious, but having kids made my wife and I study where our food comes from,” Benchoff said. “My wife has food allergies to MSG and other preservatives, and our kids were starting to have them too. Our oldest son would break out into hives if he ate eggs from the store, but yet when we raised our own, he had no problem.”

The Benchoffs have three children, a son (21), daughter (16) and son (10). Benchoff and his wife, Lori, were living in Mansfield, where he was working as an EMT instructor and firefighter, handling 911 calls.

“When we turned 40, we decided it was time for a change, and we moved to the country in 1999. We got a good deal on a 20-acre farm, and I wanted to find something to do with the land besides mow it.… Continue reading

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Ohio Weekly Crop Progress Report-May 7, 2012

The average temperature for the State was 68.1 degrees, 12.7 degrees above normal for the week ending Sunday, May 6, 2012. Precipitation averaged 1.91 inches, 1.02 inches above normal. There were 116 modified growing degree days, 53 days above normal. Reporters rated 3.6 days suitable for fieldwork during the seven-day period ending Friday, May 4, 2012. Topsoil moisture was rated 0 percent very short, 10 percent short, 69 percent adequate, and 21 percent surplus.

FIELD ACTIVITIES AND CROP PROGRESS

Temperatures and precipitation for the State changed noticeably as the week progressed. The week started cool and dry, but warmer weather later in the week brought much needed rain. Reporters still indicated that field conditions were still slightly dryer than usual for this time of year. The large temperature swing placed a slight amount of stress on livestock, but the rain was needed to help germinate newly planted crops. Other field activities for the week include hauling grain and application of fertilizer and herbicide.

Continue reading

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