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Corn bearish, soybeans bullish

By Doug Tenney, Leist Mercantile

Shock and awe with acres numbers today. Corn bearish, soybeans bullish. USDA did it again, it’s called a surprise!

At a time when traders, producers, and end users are starving for information on acres and yield, today’s acres report falls far short. There is a vast amount of irony today due to what many have expected and what the numbers should reveal but likely won’t.

The corn acres were 91.7 million acres while soybean acres were 80 million acres. Shortly after the report corn was down 11 cents, soybeans were up 12 cents.

Shortly before the report, corn was up 2 cents, soybeans up 4 cents, wheat up 1 cent. The average corn acres estimate was 86.7 million acres with a range of 82 to 89.8 million acres. The average trade estimate for soybean acres was 84.4 million acres with a range of 81 to 86.5 million acres.

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What a weird year for getting crops planted

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

The sun is almost shining at my office as I write this edition of C.O.R.N to go. That hasn’t happened much in the past eight or 10 weeks, or heck even since last October. I did finally get four days in the field last week. As I look at my rain gage numbers in Union County since April 1, I see 38 days with measurable precipitation out of 73 total days. With a total 12.5 inches of rain – it actually doesn’t sound that terrible but it’s the fact that there was so little drying in between the showers. By comparison in 2011, another rain delayed start to the season I had 16.6 inches of rain by this date. My rainfall records are available on the CoCoRaHS network, I also encourage you to get a gage and participate too: www.cocorahs.org/.

Regarding 2011, the Ohio Department of Agriculture’s Annual Report crop planting progress for 2011 for corn was at 25% at the end of May and 89% on June 10.

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Wet weather and soybean stand

By Laura Lindsey, Alexander Lindsey, Ohio State University Extension

Saturated soils after soybean planting can cause uneven emergence and stand reductions of varying extent depending on the stage of the soybean plant and other environmental factors including temperature and duration of saturated conditions. Additionally, increased disease incidence may further reduce plant stand.

Saturated soil prior to germination: While soil moisture is necessary for germination, soybean seeds will not germinate when soils are saturated because oxygen is limiting.

Saturated soil during germination: Saturated soils during soybean germination may cause uneven emergence. In a laboratory study, soybean germination was reduced by ~15% after only one hour of flood conditions (Wuebker et al., 2001). After 48 hours of flood conditions, soybean germination was reduced 33% to 70% depending on when imbibition (seed taking up water) began relative to the flooding conditions. Practically, for Ohio, this means if soybean seeds were further along in the germination process when flooding occurred, the seeds will be more susceptible to flooding stress.

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Have SCN sorrows been drowned in soggy fields?

Farmers looking for any bit of good news in all of the rain-soaked suffering this spring are asking if the extreme overabundance of moisture has drowned Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN).

“Unfortunately, the answer is no,” said Greg Tylka, Iowa State University nematologist and leader of The SCN Coalition.

Nematodes are worms (animals) that require oxygen.

“They absorb oxygen through their body wall or cuticle, which is made almost exclusively of proteins (and no chitin),” he said. “Waterlogged soils may have greatly reduced levels of oxygen. But many plant-parasitic nematodes, including SCN, can survive long periods of time with little oxygen.”

In the early 1970s, scientists at the University of Arkansas conducted experiments to determine whether SCN could survive in flooded conditions. They found that hatched SCN juveniles survived in water up to 630 days — and probably longer, but the experiment ended after 630 days. Scientists also tested survival of SCN in flooded soils, and the juveniles survived seven to 19 months depending on soil texture.

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Field-to-Lake agriculture event July 17 in Kalida

The annual Field-to-Lake Agriculture Event will take place on July 17, 2019 at the Kalida Fish and Wildlife Game Club. The Field-to-Lake program will feature more than 15 industry and farming experts focusing on topics related to water management, soil health, profitable conservation, and updates from agriculture agencies and groups.

The day will kick off at 1:00pm and will include a keynote address by Aaron Wilson, Senior Research Associate at Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center and OSU Extension Agent. Wilson will explain his study of Ohio climate and how conservation practices will play a role in successful agriculture as we continue to see weather patterns change. Afternoon breakout sessions will run until 4:15pm followed by a local farmer-led panel. Dinner will be provided including six industry updates. The evening will conclude with an ice cream social hour giving farmers the opportunity to connect.

The event is free upon registration and open to the public.

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ODA listening sessions bring 2019 concerns front and center

Ohio Director of Agriculture Dorothy Pelanda visited Leeds Farm near Ostrander Tuesday, where area farmers gathered to voice their concerns and more on what is turning out to be one of the worst years on record for farming. Christy Leeds was on hand to share the struggles their farm is seeing, including a yet-to-be-planted pumpkin crop and hay yet to be baled.

Ohio Ag Net’s Joel Penhorwood has more in this video.

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June 27 meeting to focus on cover crops for prevented planting acres

On June 27 from 6:30 p.m. to 9 p.m at the Ohio Northern University, McIntosh Center, Ballroom (yes, the same big Room A, upstairs, used for the Conservation Tillage Conference) cover crop experts and suppliers in Ohio will be featured in a meeting focused on how to handle the many prevented planting acres in northwest Ohio.

David Brandt (Walnut Creek Seeds), Dwight Clary (Clary Farms LLC), Cody Beacom (Bird Agronomics), and Alan Sundermeier, OSU Extension, Wood County will talk cover crops. Weed control is also critical in prevented planting situations and Jeff Stachler, OSU Extension Auglaize County, will speak on the topic. Brad Wingfield, Wingfield Crop Insurance Service, will cover the numerous crop insurance issues farmers will have to work through.

Additional questions and discussion will be fielded by Bret Margraf, Seneca Conservation District, and Jan Layman, president of Ohio No-Till Council. The focus will be on cover crop options. What will be your next cash crop? 

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Prevented plant acres can be hayed, grazed, or chopped earlier this year

Farmers who planted cover crops on prevented plant acres will be permitted to hay, graze or chop those fields earlier than November this year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced Thursday. USDA’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) adjusted the 2019 final haying and grazing date from November 1 to September 1 to help farmers who were prevented from planting because of flooding and excess rainfall this spring.

“We recognize farmers were greatly impacted by some of the unprecedented flooding and excessive rain this spring, and we made this one-year adjustment to help farmers with the tough decisions they are facing this year,” said Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation Bill Northey. “This change will make good stewardship of the land easier to accomplish while also providing an opportunity to ensure quality forage is available for livestock this fall.”

RMA has also determined that silage, haylage and baleage should be treated in the same manner as haying and grazing for this year.

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Prevented planting and soybeans

By Gary Schnitkey, Krista Swanson, Jonathan Coppess, and Ryan Batts, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics at the University of Illinois and Carl Zulauf, Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics at the Ohio State University

 

The Ohio prevented planting date for soybeans is June 20 with a 25-day late plant period that extends until July 15.

After June 20, the following two options are realistic to consider for most Midwest situations:

  • Take a prevented planting indemnity on soybeans, or
  • Plant soybeans.

A farmer could plant another crop on intended soybean acres, but the economics of those alternatives likely are not competitive with soybeans after the soybean final planting date has arrived. A farmer with qualifying insurance coverage could also wait until the end of the late planting period (25 days after the final planting date) to plant another crop for harvest besides soybeans, resulting in a reduction to a 35% prevented planting indemnity.

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U.S. corn and soybean yield prospects

By Todd Hubbs, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics University of Illinois

Market attention continues to focus on the potential size of the U.S. corn and soybean crops. Acreage totals look to remain uncertain for the rest of the year and any adjustments in the next WASDE report may not reflect the changes facing both crops this year. U.S. average yields appear set to move lower in the upcoming WASDE report as severe delays in planting indicate reduced yield potential.

Expectations for the U.S. average corn and soybean yields this year continue to deteriorate over recent weeks as planting delays dragged on over much of the Corn Belt. In particular, states in the eastern Corn Belt dealt with extremes moisture and massive delays this year. Yield potential falls for corn planted after the second or third weeks of May, all other conditions equal. Even though progress accelerated last week on drier weather, corn planting after May 25 came in at a higher than average percentage.

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Gov. DeWine makes NW Ohio farm visit: I can’t remember a situation bad as this 🔊

By Dale Minyo and Joel Penhorwood

Ohio Governor Mike DeWine, alongside Director of Agriculture Dorothy Pelanda, made a special trip to northwest Ohio Wednesday to see firsthand the struggles of Ohio crop and dairy farmers due to this year’s inclement weather.

The Perrysburg area visit was hosted by Kris Swartz and welcomed farmers from multiple other counties to give their take on this year of hardship, whether it be in the fields or in the barns.

“I wanted to come here and see this for myself,” said Gov. DeWine. “I’ve talked to a number of farmers in regard to this problem with the weather and it being too wet to put the crop in. Time is moving forward very quickly and this is probably in my lifetime, I can’t remember a situation that was bad as this.”

Gov. DeWine did send a letter to Sec. of Agriculture Sonny Perdue last week requesting a secretarial disaster declaration, in hopes of qualifying more Ohio farmers for federal aid.

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Expect volatile markets ahead

By Doug Tenney, Leist Mercantile

During the second half of May we observed some Ohio facilities with up to 10 cents wider basis or smaller flat price for June corn compared to May delivery corn. No doubt many producers had unexpected time to move corn to grain facilities in May due to ongoing planting delays thanks to rains which just kept coming. There were indeed logistics issues at river facilities as barge freight experienced vast differences in cost for May compared to June. Corn for May shipment along the Ohio River peaked as the basis was at least 20 cents above the July CBOT price while June delivery corn struggled to see even positive basis levels. Numerous facilities I spoke with were disappointed and surprised at the small amount of corn moving into their facilities during May.

The rapid price rally for corn during May no doubt rapidly scaled back producers’ ideas of selling 2018 corn still in their bins, especially since so many were still planting 2019 corn acres.

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June corn lookouts

By Luke Schulte, Beck’s Hybrids

As I am writing this, many corn and soybean acres have yet to be planted throughout the state. However, my hope is that by the time you read this, your crop will have emerged and will be growing vigorously.

One thing that is certain for later planted corn is that the vegetative growth period will be expedited. By now, many of you have been made aware of the research conducted by The Ohio State University and Purdue University which has shown that, on average, a hybrid requires 6.8 GDU’s less per day to reach black layer or physiological maturity when planted after May 1. This is possible because of the accelerated accumulation of heat units or GDU’s. Instead of producing a new leaf every five to seven days prior to the V7 growth stage, later planted corn will more likely produce a new leaf every four to six days within this same period.

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Amber waves of barley grain becoming more common in Ohio

By Matt Reese

With Ohio’s craft brewery boom in recent years, some of the amber waves of grain seen in fields this month in Ohio are barley planted to meet the exploding demand for locally grown malt.

“Barley is really interesting. The biggest take-home message with barley is that barley is not wheat. There are many similarities, but it is a different crop. Farmers don’t just get paid on yield. They get paid on quality too. You have to be very conscious of the quality,” said Laura Lindsey, with Ohio State University Extension. “Farmers are really excited to diversify and there is a lot of interest. Barley is harvested about 10 days earlier than winter wheat and that opens up a huge window for double-crop soybeans. It can be very profitable with those two crops coupled together.”

With one year of trial data, Lindsey was impressed with the barley yields in Ohio so far.

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Executive order addresses biotechnology

This month, President Donald Trump signed an executive order designed to simplify the regulatory process for genetically engineered products, help eliminate delays and reduce costs.

“Having an updated, transparent and scientifically sound regulatory system for agricultural biotechnology is critical if American farmers and ranchers are to meet the challenges of today and tomorrow. I applaud President Trump for his Executive Order that will foster policy to spur agricultural innovation, encourage engagement and alignment at the global level and provide a firm foundation for the future of gene edited crops and animals,” said Zippy Duvall, American Farm Bureau Federation president. “Innovative solutions have been a creed for American agriculture for a long time and with yesterday’s action by the President, it ensures a framework and directive for agricultural innovation well into the future.”

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Crop progress report shows corn leveling off, beans still going

Much of the State received higher than normal amounts of rain last week, according to Cheryl Turner, State Statistician, USDA NASS, Ohio Field Office. There were 2.5 days suitable for fieldwork in Ohio during the week ending June 16. Temperatures slumped nearly 6 degrees below normal. Corn and soybean planted progress increased but were still well behind their 5-year averages. Wheat began to mature and was rated 65 percent fair to good condition. There were reports of hay fields and pastures that were difficult or impossible to mow due to increased soil moisture levels. Operators making haylage found it easier to stay on schedule than those making dry hay. First cutting progress for alfalfa and other hay also lagged behind their 5-year averages. Oats planted progress crept to 91 percent while oats reached the headed stage slower than the 5-year average. From the national scene, USDA reports that 100% of corn is planted, likely indicating that no more planting will take place.

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Second sign-up period announced for Western Lake Erie Basin

The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) is announcing the second sign-up period for programs in the Western Lake Erie Basin funded by the passage of Ohio Senate Bill 299. Signed in 2018, Ohio Senate Bill 299 provided $23.5 million for soil and water conservation districts (SWCD) located in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) for nutrient management programs.

ODA says that two programs have been a success so far this year, the Ohio Working Lands Hay Buffer Program and the Ohio Working Lands Small Grains Program. ODA Director Dorothy Pelanda announced that there are funds remaining for a second round of program sign-ups.

The Ohio Working Lands Hay Buffer Program encourages producers in the WLEB to establish year-round vegetative cover on eligible cropland. The program promotes the conversion, establishment, and maintenance of forage/hay land on certain cropland acres. These buffers act as another line of defense to filter surface water while allowing participants to harvest forage from the established areas.

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Many Ohio acres will likely go unplanted

To plant or not to plant.

It’s becoming a bit easier for some farmers to decide between the two, with each day that the growing season progresses and forecasts for rain continue.

The last 12 months have been the wettest on record in Ohio, and that has put farmers across the state so far behind in planting corn and soybeans that some are deciding to not plant and to file an insurance claim instead. Only 50% of Ohio’s corn crop and 32% of its soybean crop were planted by June 9, according to a report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The delay in planting adds an extra layer of strain on farmers already facing low prices for corn and soybeans, low animal feed supplies, and uncertainty about trade relief aid.

For those who haven’t planted corn by now, it’s possible that the highest returns will come from not planting and, instead, filing a claim for “prevented planting,” said Ben Brown, manager of the Farm Management Program at The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).

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Ohio’s record rainfall leaving some farmers on the sidelines

During the wettest yearlong period in Ohio since 1895, the state is lagging the furthest behind in planting corn and soybeans compared to all states that plant the crops, according to experts from The Ohio State University and federal reports.

From June 1, 2018, to May 31, 2019, average rainfall across Ohio totaled 52 inches, which is about 10 inches above the mean for that period in the last decade, said Aaron Wilson, climate specialist for Ohio State’s College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).

“We’ve had very wet soils for a very long time,” Wilson said.

As a result, only 50% of Ohio’s corn crop and 32% of its soybean crop was planted by June 9, a report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture shows. By now, Ohio typically is 96% done with planting corn and 89% done with soybeans.

A brief slowdown in rainfall during the week of June 3 sent more Ohio corn and soybean growers out into their fields to plant, but that likely will prove to be only a temporary reprieve.

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Flooding and ponding in corn

By Alexander Lindsey and Peter Thomison, Ohio State University Extension

Persistent rains during May and early June have resulted in ponding and saturated soils in many Ohio corn fields and led to questions concerning what impact these conditions will have on corn performance.

The extent to which ponding injures corn is determined by several factors including (1) plant stage of development when ponding occurs, (2) duration of ponding and (3) air/soil temperatures. Corn is affected most by flooding at the early stages of growth (see https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2018-15/young-corn-wet-feet-what-can-we-expect). Under certain conditions, saturated soils can result in yield losses. Saturated soil conditions can result in losses of nitrogen through denitrification and leaching.

Additionally, root uptake of nutrients may be seriously reduced even if plants are not killed outright by the oxygen deficiency and the carbon dioxide toxicity that result from saturated soil conditions. Root growth and plant respiration slow down while root permeability to water and nutrient uptake decreases.

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