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Ohio Field Leader

Are foliar fungicides plus insecticide tank mixture applications to soybeans profitable?

By Michael Staton, Michigan State University Extension Soybean Educator, with additional comments from Dr. Laura Lindsey, OSU Extension State Soybean Specialist.

Are foliar fungicides plus insecticide tank mixture applications to soybeans profitable? On-farm research results collected from 2017 to 2019 by Michigan State University Extension can help soybean producers decide if they should apply foliar fungicide and insecticide tank mixtures in 2020. Similar research has also been performed in Ohio and across states in the North Central Region.

Michael Staton, MSU Extension Soybean Educator

Soybean producers are interested in increasing soybean yields and income by applying foliar tank mixtures of a fungicide and an insecticide. However, extension entomologists do not recommend insurance tank mixes like this for a variety of reasons, unless insects are over threshold. The Michigan soybean on-farm research program coordinated a total of 15 trials from 2017 to 2019 to evaluate the yield and income performance of foliar fungicide and insecticide tank mixtures.

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Double-crop soybeans

By Dr. Laura Lindsey, OSU Extension State Soybean Specialist, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2020-20

As small grains are harvested across the state, here are some management considerations for double-crop soybean production:

Relative maturity (RM) has little effect on yield when soybeans are planted during the first three weeks of May. However, the effect of RM can be larger for late planting. When planting soybean late, the latest maturing variety that will reach physiological maturity before the first killing frost is recommended. The suitable relative maturity for soybeans planted between July 1-10 is: 3.0 to 3.3 for Northern Ohio, 3.2 to 3.5 for Central Ohio, and 3.4 to 3.7 for Southern Ohio. This is to allow the soybean plants to grow vegetatively as long as possible to produce nodes where pods can form before vegetative growth is slowed due to flowering and pod formation.

Laura Lindsey, OSU Extension Soybean and Small Grains Specialist

Double-crop soybeans should be produced in narrow rows- 7.5 to 15-inch row spacing.

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H2Ohio update

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

While the state of Ohio has been reeling from challenges brought on by the Coronavirus, H2Ohio was quietly implemented this spring by several farmers in the Maumee River Watershed using conservation practices of variable rate phosphorus application with their planters, and subsurface phosphorus placement. The recommended conservation practices in H2Ohio have not changed, however the original application agreement details have. State budget concerns due to the impact of COVID-19 placed funding for the H2Ohio program in question. On March 23, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine ordered all departments to reduce spending by 20% for the remainder of 2020 and also in 2021. In May, Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) Director Dorothy Pelanda, stated that the program would still be available to assist farmers in implementing select practices, however funding would not be available until the 2021 crop year.

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Grower coalition files amicus brief on behalf of soybean farmers

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

Soybean growers risk suffering significant harm if they cannot use existing stocks of dicamba products. This statement was the leading argument in the amicus brief filed by a coalition of agricultural commodity organizations, including the American Soybean Association (ASA), on Tuesday, June 16, with the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. The brief was filed to inform the court that “granting the petitioners’ motion mid-growing season could have catastrophic consequences for growers and America’s agricultural community, which depend on being able to use the dicamba products for the next several weeks.  The Court should respect EPA’s expertise in managing existing stocks of formerly registered pesticide products and deny petitioners’ emergency motion,” the brief went on to say.

The grower coalition’s brief, makes a case for farmers caught in a highly frustrating and costly situation amid prime planting season and the narrow weed-control window.

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Cover crops after wheat

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Wheat harvest may start in 3-4 weeks and it is time to order cover crop seed.  A long growing season after wheat allows for many options.  Warm season cover crops grow in the summer but die with the first frost while cool season species generally survive the winter.  Major categories include brassicas, grasses, legumes, and other broadleaves with over 60 species.  Cover crops offer many advantages including adding carbon and soil organic matter (SOM), improving water infiltration and soil structure, tie up soluble nutrients, weed fighters, and improve soil health.

Brassica cover crops are small seeded, fairly inexpensive, and include daikon radish, kale, rape seed, and turnips. Radish, kale and rape have deep roots which reduce soil compaction, help control weeds, and add soil microbial diversity. Radish should be planted in mixtures (2#/A or less) because when it dies (200 F) it smells bad and may allow soluble nutrients to leach. 

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Calcium and manganese deficiency

By John Kempf and James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Services

Calcium and manganese are two soil abundant elements that are often not as plant available and may be deficient in plant cells. Calcium is used in cell wall membranes and often becomes limiting during critical pollination periods when cells are rapidly dividing. Manganese is used in photosynthesis to split the water molecule (H20) into H+ and OH.

Grain and fruit size are determined by calcium after pollination. The cell division process proceeds rapidly, lasting 5-40 days but most grain crops have a 10-14 day cell division window. Cell division occurs exponentially (2-4-8-16-32-64 etc.) as cells divide so calcium may become deficient quickly after pollination. After cell division, grain or fruit fill occurs as the cell is filled with proteins, sugars, and water.  A lack of calcium can limit cell division, grain or fruit size, and reduce yields.… Continue reading

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PFR is more than just research

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

At the Beck’s PFR (Practical Farm Research) site near London, Ohio PFR is more than just research.

“The Ohio PFR site strives to be a respected member of the community and accurate representation of the Beck family,” said Jared Chester, Practical Farm Research Location Lead. “The London, Ohio PFR location includes 130 acres of replicated plots, along with another 85 acres of testing in larger field scale settings that are managed with The Ohio State University.”

Jared Chester, Practical Farm Research Operator

Beck’s PFR locations are representative of the agricultural production commonly found in the area.

“The London site has 70 different replicated studies which include: corn, soybeans, wheat, and double crop soybeans. In addition, we have some demonstration plots that are conducted for training and observation only,” Chester said. “We are using replicated testing to answer questions and provide recommendations to help farmers succeed.”

Beck’s has six testing locations across five states, as well as cooperator sites in an additional three states.

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Ohio’s Country Journal & Ohio Ag Net Podcast |Ep. 158 | Dicamba Debacle

As Quarantine begins to come to a close, county fairs begin to make plans to open with the rest of the state. Matt, Kolt, Dusty and Dale host this week and talk about the current hot button topic of dicamba products. Dusty interviews Joe Taylor for more information in the issue. Kolt features an interview with Katey Brattin from the Wendt Group about a product they have released for county fair sale use.… Continue reading

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Changes in status of dicamba product labels for Xtend soybeans — a recap

By Mark Loux, Ohio State University Extension, State Weed Specialist

On June 3, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals issued a decision in a case concerning the use of dicamba on Xtend soybeans. This decision voided the labels for XtendiMax, Engenia, and FeXapan that allow use on Xtend soybeans. Tavium was not included in this decision, because it was not approved for use when the case was initially filed. Several great articles covering this decision can be found here on the OSU Ag Law blog (https://farmoffice.osu.edu/blog). EPA issued a statement on June 8 providing further guidance about what this decision means for use of dicamba the rest of this season. The gist of this decision was the following:

“EPA’s order addresses sale, distribution, and use of existing stocks of the three affected dicamba products — XtendiMax with vapor grip technology, Engenia, and FeXapan.

  1. Distribution or sale by any person is generally prohibited except for ensuring proper disposal or return to the registrant.
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EPA provides clarification on Dicamba use

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff.

Clarification and further guidance was provided on Monday, June 8th, by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for farmers and retailers, regarding the use of certain dicamba products that have been in question since June 3rd, when those product’s federal registration was vacated by a federal court.  According to the ruling, The EPA received a large amount of unsolicited comments regarding the courts decision and resulting impacts on agriculture.

Last Wednesday, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the product registration of three dicamba-based products, incuding: Monsanto’s XtendiMax, DuPont’s FeXapan, and BASF’s Engenia; as conditional use pesticides for post-emergent applications. The court held that when the EPA conditionally amend the registrations for an additional two years, the process they used violated the provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”).… Continue reading

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Crimping cover crops

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Crop roller “crimping” has become a common way to mechanically terminate cover crops.  Crimpers are used to kill grass cover crops (cereal rye, barley, wheat, sorghum, Sudan, pearl millet), vetches (hairy and common), annual clovers (crimson and balansa), buckwheat,  and multi-species cover crops. Crimpers do not work well with perennial cover crops like red clover, alfalfa, or annual ryegrass as a cover crop.  The best results occur on annual cover crops when the heads or flowers are in the “boot” or head stage, near the end of the plant growth cycle.

Crimpers are 16-inch rolling steel drums with blunt steel blades either tractor pulled or front mounted.  As the crimper rolls through a cover crop, the blunt blade “crimps” or injures plant stems every 7 inches.

Roller Crimper, photo courtesy of Hoorman Soil Health Services

The blades are usually curved or positioned in a “chevron” pattern  at a 7-100 angle to reduce bouncing, soil movement, and to increase maximum plant stem crimping pressure.   

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Developing elite genetics

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

Sixteen years ago, this month, when Reid Rice was walking across the stage as a graduate from high school in Wauseon, Ohio, he never would have guessed just a decade later, he would be a research scientist and plant breeder for Corteva Agriscience at a location, just a few miles south of their family farm. For the past six years, Rice has been leading soybean research for Corteva (formerly DuPont Pioneer) at their research center just north of Napoleon, Ohio.

“The breeding objective at the Napoleon research center is focused on soybeans with a relative maturity of 2.6 to 3.9 for the target production environment (TPE) found in Ohio, Southeast Michigan, and Northeast Indiana,” Rice said. “We have done a lot of work in the past on agronomic traits, herbicide resistance, and high oils like the Plenish soybeans.”

While developing elite varieties that can maximize a farmer’s yield is the first priority, Rice said that an important component of that is the screening for protection from yield robing disease, such as soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Phytophthora sojae, brown stem rot, White Mold, and sudden death syndrome (SDS).

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Ohio soybean disease monitoring

By Carol Brown, United Soybean Board database communications

Ohio farmers can be grateful that Anne Dorrance is working on their behalf. The soybean research and extension pathologist at Ohio State University has been monitoring soybeans across the state for the appearance of diseases including frogeye leaf spot in addition to her teaching and administrative requirements.

With funding support from the Ohio Soybean Council, she is monitoring for diseases and studying ways to mitigate them.

Anne Dorrance OSU Soybean Researcher Field Leader
Dr. Anne Dorrance, OSU Plant Pathologist

“It is my commitment to the Council to keep on top of any disease that might come into the state,” Dorrance said. “Their funding has enabled me to monitor for all diseases and their potential yield losses, and also run the experiments to detect when there is fungicide resistance in the state.”

Dorrance is involved with many research projects in the state and the Midwest, and this project allows her and her students to move with the surge when a plant disease emerges and to shift resources quickly within the season.

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Communicating in crisis: Your relationship with ag retailers webinar, Thursday, May 14

COVID-19 has profoundly affected every aspect of daily life, including the critical supply chain from retailer to farmer. The Ohio Soybean Council (OSC) and soybean checkoff, in partnership with the Ohio AgriBusiness Association (OABA), is presenting the webinar Communicating in crisis: Your relationship with ag retailers, Thursday, May 14 at 11:00 a.m.

This free webinar will feature three ag retail representatives sharing how their companies are balancing the need to ensure safety with the reality of growing our nation’s food.

Jedd Bookman, Safety & Risk Coordinator, Sunrise Cooperative; Rodney Gilliland, Vice President of Sales and Supply, Morral Companies; and Bill Wallbrown, CEO, Deerfield Ag Service will discuss the following topics:

  • How are retailers adapting to the challenges of COVID-19?
  • What steps are retailers taking to reduce risk for their employees and their customers?
  • What are the best practices for farmers when working with retailers?

Register now at: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/5094436900911010061

We hope you will join us for this important and informative discussion presented by the Ohio Soybean Council and Checkoff and the Ohio AgriBusiness Association. 

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Soil inoculants

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

As planting season starts, some farmers are applying soil bio-inoculants to promote improved plant growth.  Dr. Jay Johnson (retired), former OSU fertility specialist, touted inoculating soybeans with Rhizobium bacteria yearly to increase soybeans yields 1-2 bushels. The Rhizobium bacteria increased nitrogen in soybean nodules which improved crop yields. Today, many farmers are experimenting with soil bio-inoculants with variable results.  Evaluating and using soil inoculants requires some careful management to be successful.

Underneath a single footprint exists more soil microbes than humans in the world!  Soil microbes and plant roots evolved together, feeding each other, and  require certain environmental conditions to flourish.  Most beneficial soil microbes and plants require well aerated soils with high levels of soil organic matter (SOM).  Farmers converting from conventional tillage systems to no-till generally get the most benefit from soil bio-inoculants.  Conventional tilled soils may be too wet, lack enough oxygen or be low in SOM to support the soil microbes long-term. 

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How and When to Plant No-till Soybeans

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Services

Planting no-till can be tricky and scary! Successful no-till depends on having fully functioning healthy soils and efficient nitrogen (N) recycling.  Fully functioning soils have higher soil organic matter (SOM) especially the active carbon, sugars, and root exudates  from live roots that allows the soil to crumble.  This leads to good soil structure, improved  drainage, increases water infiltration, and higher soil gas exchange. This aerobic (more oxygen) environment plus the food source (live cover crop (CC) roots) changes the microbial community from one dominated by bacteria (conventional soils, often anaerobic (no oxygen)) to a balanced system with beneficial fungi (mycorrhizal), good nematodes, healthy aerobic bacteria, and protozoa.  The “no-till time line” or transition period is often 3-7 years depending upon how fast and aggressive cover crops, continuous no-till, and manure have been used to promote a fully functioning healthy soil.

Soybeans are hardy, easy, and most simple crop to no-till. 

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Sprayer calibration: The why and how

By Erdal Ozkan, Ohio State University Extension State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

This is the time to check the accuracy of your sprayer. While applying too little pesticide may result in ineffective pest control, too much pesticide wastes money, may damage the crop and increases the potential risk of contaminating ground water and environment. The primary goal with calibration is to determine the actual rate of application in gallons per acre, then to make adjustments if the difference between the actual rate and the intended rate is greater or less than 5% of the intended rate. This is a recommended guideline by USEPA and USDA.

I get this question all the time: “Why should I calibrate my sprayer? I have a rate controller on the sprayer. I just enter the application rate I want, the controller does the rest”. This statement is correct, only if you are sure about the accuracy of the rate controller which is highly affected by the accuracy of the sprayer travel speed data that goes in the rate controller.

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Do you know which sprayer nozzles to buy?

By Erdal Ozkan, The Ohio State University Extension, State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

This is the time of the year you must complete shopping for nozzles because the spraying season is just around the corner. Although nozzles are some of the least expensive components of a sprayer, they hold a high value in their ability to influence sprayer performance. Nozzles help determine the gallon per acre. They also influence the droplet size, which plays a significant role in achieving improved penetration into crop canopy and better coverage on the target pest, both affect the efficacy we expect from pesticides applied. When I get a question like, “what is the best nozzle I can buy?”, my answer is: it depends on the job on hand. One nozzle may be best for a given application situation, but it may be the worst nozzle to use for another situation. Sometimes, the choice of nozzle may be determined by the requirements given on the pesticide label.

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New HPPD Inhibitor registered for soybeans in select counties

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

In the world of herbicide classification, the are 10 known Modes of Action that have been identified. One of those modes is the Pigment Inhibitor. In the pigment inhibitors are the Group 27 HPPD Inhibitors. This includes products such as Balance Flexx, Armezon, Impact, Callisto, Laudis, and now a newly registered product from BASF called Alite 27 (27 stands for the Group 27 Herbicide). Alite 27 is the first and only EPA registered HPPD available for use in soybeans on the Liberty Link GT27 beans in select counties for 2020.

“Today’s management practices of relying on a single mode of action are not sustainable for long-term control of problem weeds,” said Scott Kay, Vice President of U.S. Crop, BASF Agricultural Solutions. “BASF continues to bring new innovations, like Alite 27 herbicide, to market to give growers more operational control over their crops and to help eliminate troublesome weeds in their fields.”

Alite 27 first received Federal EPA registration on March 20, and the State registration in Ohio earlier this month.

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Nematologists eager to study a new soybean variety with SCN resistance

A new soybean variety with resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) derived from the breeding line PI 89772 is being released by Syngenta in small quantities in 2020. Syngenta is sharing seed with university researchers and farm cooperators now, and full commercial launch is expected in 2021. “We’re excited about a new soybean variety with a source of SCN resistance derived from breeding lines other than PI 88788 and Peking,” said Melissa Mitchum, molecular nematologist at the University of Georgia and co-leader of The SCN Coalition. “If the new variety has the right combination of resistance genes, it could offer a novel mode of action that shifts SCN populations in a different direction than the PI 88788 breeding line and possibly the Peking breeding line, too.”

USDA researchers originally discovered PI 89772 on an expedition in China back in 1930. Ninety years later, and after nearly 25 years of work by breeder Jose Aponte, Syngenta is releasing the variety under two brand names: Golden Harvest GH2329X and NK Brand S23-G5X.

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